Civilization Manual
typed, formatted, indexed, and put into HTML by The TTG Guy




Required Equipment
Additional IBM Features
Keyboard-Only Interface
Copy Protection
Terrain Chart


Cities and Civilizations
Before You Start
Interface Introduction
Pre-Game Options
The Game Turn
Ending The Game & Winning


The World Map
The Map Display
Settlers, Soldiers, and Envoys
Advisors/World Reports
Planetary Caretaking
The Space Race


The City Display
City Improvements
Wonders of the World



Advanced Flight
(Flight & Electricity)
(Mysticism & Mathematics)
Atomic Theory
(Theory of Gravity & Physics)
(Combustion & Steel)
(Trade & The Republic)
Bridge Building
(Construction & Iron Working)
(University & Medicine)
(Horseback Riding & Feudalism)
(Refining & Explosives)
(Philosophy & Industrialization)
(Mathematics & Electronics)
(The Republic & Explosives)
(Masonry & Currency)
(Philosophy & Literacy)
(Metallurgy & Magnetism)
(Engineering & Electricity)
(The Wheel & Construction)
(Gunpowder & Chemistry)
(Masonry & Monarchy)
(Combustion & Physics)
Fusion Power
(Nuclear Power & Superconductor)
Genetic Engineering
(Medicine & The Corporation)
(Invention & Iron Working)
(Railroad & Banking)
(Engineering & Literacy)
Labor Union
(Mass Production & Communism)
(Writing & Code of Laws)
(Navigation & Physics)
Mass Production
(Automobile & The Corporation)
(Alphabet & Masonry)
(Philosophy & Trade)
(Gunpowder & University)
(Ceremonial Burial & Code of Laws)
(Map Making & Astronomy)
Nuclear Fission
(Atomic Theory & Mass Production)
Nuclear Power
(Electronics & Nuclear Fission)
(Mysticism & Literacy)
(Mathematics & Navigation)
(Refining & Space Flight)
(Steam Engine & Bridge Building)
(Mass Production & Democracy)
(Chemistry & The Corporation)
(Philosophy & Writing)
(Plastics & Computers)
(Advanced Flight & Electronics)
Space Flight
(Computers & Rocketry)
Steam Engine
(Physics & Invention)
(Metallurgy & Industrialization)
(Plastics & Mass Production)
The Corporation
(Banking & Industrialization)
The Republic
(Code of Laws & Literacy)
Theory of Gravity
(Astronomy & University)
(Currency & Code of Laws)
(Mathematics & Philosophy)



        Your Civilization game should contain this manual and a set of high-density 5 1/4" disks or high density 3 1/2" disks.


        Computer: This simulation requires an IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, Compaq, Tandy 1000, or a computer 100% compatible with one of those models. The machine must have at least 640k of RAM.
        Controls: The simulation is best run with a mouse and keyboard, but may be run entirely from the keyboard.
        Display: The simulation requires a color monitor with an IBM EGA, MCGA, VGA, or Tandy 1000 graphics system. EGA systems must have 256k on the graphics card (standard on all but the earliest releases). The simulation will not run on a system with a monochrome monitor. If you are using a compatible graphics card/monitor, it must be 100% hardware compatible to one of the above.
        DOS: You must have IBM or MicroSoft DOS, version 3.0 or higher.


Installation Concepts

        Civilization is not copy-protected. This means you can copy the game files from the original disks however you prefer -- to other floppy disks, or to a hard disk. These files are normal in all respects, and should not cause special problems when backing up, restoring, or optimizing a hard disk. However, keep the original disks handy.
        Civilization has been left unprotected for your convenience in making back-up copies and when playing from a hard drive. However, making additional copies to give away or sell is a Copyright violation. See the Copyright notice at the end of this game manual.

Installation on Floppy Disks

        This simulation is designed to run using copies of the original (distribution) disks, but no information will be supplied in the box. You can run the game using the distribution disks, but no information will be saved. We suggest making back-up copies of and using those to play from. A description of how to make back-up copies follows. Also, format disks before doing any copies -- to make sure the disk is "clean" and in good operating condition.
        Format a Floppy Disk: Formatting a disk requires that you boot your computer with DOS, and at the ">" prompt type the appropriate format command. For example, on most machines, this is "FORMAT A:" to format a floppy disk in the A: floppy drive. For details, consult the description of "FORMAT" in your DOS manual.
        Regardless of the type of drive that you have, format one disk for each of the game disks and one disk for your save-game files.
        Copy to newly formatted disks: After formatting disks, now use the DOS "COPY" command to copy the disks with *.* as the file designators. Typically, this command is entered as "COPY A:*.* B:*.*", even if you just have one floppy drive. For details, consult the description of "COPY" in your DOS manual.

Installation on a Hard Disk

        You can copy the original (distribution) disks onto a hard disk. The files copied are standard DOS files. They can be copied, erased, and optimized as desired.
        Install Program: For your convenience, batch files are included that automatically install the program onto your hard disk. To use these files, place the "#1" disk in your A: drive, type either "INSTALLC", "INSTALLD", or "INSTALLE", and press Return (Enter), and follow the prompts. Use the command INSTALLC f your hard drive has only one partition. Use the INSTALLD or INSTALLE command if your hard drive has more than one partition and you would like to install the game on your second or third partition.
        Warning: The install batch file assumes that you will install from a floppy drive A: onto hard disk C:, D:, or E:. If your hardware configuration is different, do not use the batch file. Instead, you must manually copy the files from the floppy to the hard disk, using the DOS "COPY" command.
        Technical Notes: This install program creates a subdirectory on your hard disk titled "MPS" and a subdirectory of it titled "CIV". The program copies all files into the CIV subdirectory. It then copies a runtime batch file into the MPS directory titled "CIV.BAT", for your convenience. Experienced IBM users should feel free to modify or move "CIV.BAT".


Loading from Floppy Disks with a Single Drive

1.Boot your machine using DOS (version 3.0 or higher recommended).
2.Insert disks: When the "A:>" prompt appears, remove the DOS disk and insert the Civilization "#1" disk. Thereafter during play you are prompted when you must remove the "#1" disk and insert the "#2" disk. Note that at certain times the game accesses the "#1" disk for information, so do not remove the "#1" disk from your drive once the game has begun unless prompted to make a switch. Also, be aware that game animations and certain additional graphics are only available from two disk or hard drive systems. Use the back-up copies made in the install instructions above.
3.Set Speed: If you have a "turbo" or multi-speed computer, use your normal speed setting.
4.Load Program: Type the following:
and press return. The simulation will begin loading.

Loading from Floppy Disks with Two Drives

1.Boot your machine using DOS (version 3.0 or higher recommended).
2.Insert disks: When the "A:>" prompt appears, remove the DOS disk and insert the Civilization "#1" disk. Put the "#2" disk in the second drive to start. Do not remove a disk from your drive once the game has begun unless prompted to do so or saving or loading a saved game from a saved game disk. Use the back-up copied made in the installation instructions above.
3.Set Speed: If you have a "turbo" or multi-speed computer, use your normal speed setting.
4.Load Program: Type the following:
and press return. The simulation will begin loading.

Loading from a Hard Disk

        This assumes your machine runs under DOS when it boots, which is true in 99+% of all IBM and compatible machines with hard disks.
1.Turn on your machine. If it is already on, exit all programs and return to the MPS directory with the "CD" DOS command. For example, if your hard disk is C: then "cd C:\MPS" does this.
2.Set Speed: If you have a "turbo" or multi-speed computer, use your normal speed setting.
3.Load Program: Type the following:
and press return. The simulation will begin loading.

Graphics Options

VGA: Select this option if you have a VGA graphics board.
MCGA: Select this option if you have a PS/2 or an MCGA graphics board.
EGA: Select this option if you have an EGA graphics board. This option provides 16 colors.
Tandy 1000: Select this option if you have a Tandy 1000. This option provides 16 colors.

Sound Driver Options

        When Civilization loads it asks you to select a sound option. The current options include the following:
        No Sound: This turns off all sound throughout the game.
        IBM Sound: This default sound is appropriate to all IBM PC, XT, AT and PS/2 machines with no special sound hardware.
        Tandy Sound: Only use this option on Tandy computers, which include a special music chip.
        Ad Lib/Sound Blaster or Compatibles Sound Board: Only use this option if you've added to your computer the Ad Lib music board or a compatible.
        Roland LAPC-1 MIDI Board: Only use this option if you've added this sound board to your computer. An MT-32 or CM32L can also be used with an MPU-401 compatible MIDI interface. If you encounter problems when using Roland sound hardware, remove any other MIDI input connection and try again.
        Custom Drivers: In the future, MicroProse may supply custom sound drivers for new sound boards. To install one of these, copy it into your game directory (disk B if on floppies), rename the driver program to XSOUND.EXE and select "Custom sound driver" when starting the game.

Loading Problems?

        The latest notes regarding the game and "compatibility issues" can be found on disk in an ASCII file named "READ.ME", which can be read with standard DOS commands such as "TYPE READ.ME".
        If the program does not load or run correctly, turn off your machine and restart it. Make sure DOS and Civilization are the only programs loading into memory. Certain RAM-resident programs or tools can conflict with Civilization.
        If you receive a message stating that you do not have enough memory, try playing with EGA graphics instead of VGA or with IBM sound instead of Ad-Lib or Roland sound.
        If you continue to have trouble, try the original Civilization disks. Your copies may be bad. If the original doesn't work, try the original Civilization disks in another PC. If the disks work in another machine, then your machine has compatibility problems (i.e., some aspect is not entirely IBM compatible). Try a different machine speed, or a keyboard/mouse, graphics, or sound option. Sometimes an alternate setting will work.
        If you have trouble loading on other machines as well as your own, you may be one of the tiny percentage with a defective disk. In such cases, contact MicroProse Customer Service at (410) 771-1151, Monday through Friday, 9am-5pm Eastern time. Please have a pencil and paper handy.

Saved Games

        You may savegames currently under way and continue them later. Games may be saved onto your hard drive or a previously formatted saved game disk. You may not save your games onto your game disks or back-up game disks. To save a current game, pull down the Game menu and choose "SaveGame". When you have the GameOption "Autosave" turned on, your game is saved every fifty turns.

Saving Games to a Floppy Drive
1.Place your previously formatted saved game disk in the floppy drive you wish to save to, normally either your A: or B: drive (Be aware that you cannot format a hard disk while the game is underway, so have formatted disks handy.)
2.Enter the letter of the drive where you previously placed your save game disk and Press return.
3.This opens the saved game files on your save game disk. Move the highlight to the file into which you wish to save your game and press return. This saves your game into the file.

Saving Games to a Hard Drive
1.The letter of your hard drive is already shown in the window, so simply press Return.
2.This opens the saved game files on your save game disk. Move the highlight to the file into which you wish to save your game and press return. This saves your game into the file.
        You may only have a limited number of games saved on any disk. If the game files are full on any disk, move the highlight to the existing saved game you wish to overwrite and press return. This writes the new saved game over the old one, erasing the old one. If you don't want to erase any game on a full disk, hit the ESC key to return to the game, and start the save game process over. However, you cannot format a disk while the game is underway, so have additional formatted disks handy.

Loading a Saved Game

        Saved games can only be loaded as a pre-game option. To load a saved game, follow these instructions:
1.Choose the option "Load a Saved Game" when you start the game.
2.Type the letter of the drive where the saved game disk is located, either on your hard drive (D: or C: normally) or a floppy drive (A: or B: normally).
3.After selecting the drive, press return.
4.This opens the saved game files on your save game disk. Move the highlight to the file into which you wish to save your game and press return. This saves your game into the file.
        All saved games consist of two files, a CIVIL#.SVE file and a CIVIL#.MAP file. Each file is differentiated by the name you chose for yourself when the saved game was started and the year when it was saved. Saved game files are normal DOS files that can be moved and copied with normal DOS commands.


Game Commands
Center map on active unitC key
Change menu highlightNumeric keypad keys1
Choose menu optionReturn key/Spacebar2
Leave menu or screen scape key
Map cursor on/offTab key (keyboard-Only interface)
Menu help Alt + H keys (where noted)
Quit game Alt + Q keys
Scroll mapShift + numeric keypad direction key
Sound off/onAlt + V keys
Toggle units on/offT key

Unit Commands
Agricultural improvement*I key
Build fortress*/FortifyF key
Build Railroad*R key
Build Road*R key
Clear Pollution*P key
DisbandShift + D key
Found new city*B key
Go ToG key
Home cityH key
Industrial improvement*M key
Move unitNumeric keypad direction keys
No ordersSpacebar
PillageShift + P key
SentryS key
Unload shipU key
WaitW key

Short Keys Information
Change Luxury rate - key
Change Tax rate= key
Find cityShift + ? key
Open Menu Bar menuAlt + first letter key
Save gameShift + S key
City StatusF1 function key
Military AdvisorF2 function key
Intelligence AdvisorF3 function key
Attitude AdvisorF4 function key
Trade AdvisorF5 function key
Science AdvisorF6 function key
Wonders of the WorldF7 function key
Top 5 CitiesF8 function key
Civilization ScoreF9 function key
World MapF10 function key

City Display Commands
(Keyboard-Only Interface)
Change production mapP key
Change Specialist1-8 key
Sell improvement S key
Activate unitA key
Change productionC key
Buy productionB key


Name Your Tribe

        The following additional features were added to the IBM version.

        While selecting your pre-game options you may insert any name you wish for your tribe instead of selecting one of the fourteen available from the Select Your Tribe menu. To insert a name of your own, press the Escape key when the tribe menu opens. Then type in the name you wish and press the Return key to enter it into the game. It is recommended that the name be made plural, such as "Scots, Franks," or "Hittites," so that the game text reads correctly. Thereafter your civilization is known by this name.

Menu Help

        When you have opened the production change menu from the city display, or when you are asked to select a new advance for your scientists to pursue, you may obtain access to the Civilopedia to help you make your decision. Using the mouse, click the RMB on any selection to read about it from the Civilopedia. Using the keyboard-only interface, press the Alt + H keys to open the Civilopedia. Menus that have this help function indicate that it is an option.

Additional Game Menu Options

        There are two more choices available under the Options selection of the Game Menu: Sound and Enemy Moves. As for all Options choices, a check-mark indicates the option is off.
        Sound: Choosing the Sound option toggles the music and effects off and on.
        Enemy Moves: When this option is on, the program shows you the moves of all enemy units that you are aware of. When off, you see only the enemy moves that cause combat, or those that occur on the part of the map currently visible in the map display. Turning off enemy moves may have the effect of speeding play later in the game when there are many enemy units moving.
        In addition, two other options need further comment.
        Animations: It is recommended that anyone playing from floppy disks turn off Animations as this significantly speeds play.
        AutoSave: Each floppy disk has ten saved game slots. The first four, numbered 0-3, are for games saved on demand from the Game menu. The other six, numbered 4-9, are for games saved through the AutoSave option.


        When the change production menu is open on the city display, showing what items can be built in a city, some items may be marked with an "*" symbol. This symbol indicates that the item has already been made obsolete by the advance of technology, even though you may still build it.

Unhappy People

        Under Republics and Democracies, people are made unhappy b ground units and ships not in their home city. People are also made unhappy by air units and nuclear bomb units, regardless of location.

Replay Options

        When you retire from play, a menu opens offering the option of reviewing a variety of replays of your civilization's history. You can choose the Quick Replay, the Complete Replay, or Write Replay to Disk.
        Quick Replay: This replay shows the basic land mass of the world and repots the founding, capture, and destruction of cities by all civilizations throughout the game. From this replay you can quickly see what happened while you were busy in your part of the world. This replay proceeds on it's own.
        Complete Replay: The complete replay shows the information reported in the quick replay, but also reports who first achieves each civilization advance, who first builds each unit and Wonder, changes in the state of war or peace between civilizations, and the destruction of civilizations. At various dates this replay reports your standing in the world. The complete replay stops after each information report. You must press the Spacebar or the Return key to proceed.
        Write Replay to Disk: Choosing this selection writes the Complete replay information into a text file named "Replay.txt" that is saved on your hard disk. In addition, a map of the world is also saved. This map shows all land mass and the location and nationality of all cities. It also shows where cities that have been destroyed were located. Once you have left the program you can print this information out as a text file and you may read it by opening it in a text editing program.


        When you retire, a Powergraph appears showing the relative strength over time of the civilizations in the game, including yours. The power of all civilizations in the game is indicated on the graph by lines in the civilization's color. The higher a line climbs, the greater the power of the civilization. Civilizations that are destroyed have their lines fall to the bottom of the graph. For this graph, power includes everything your civilization possesses, including cities, population, improvements, Wonders, your treasury, and units.


        If you do not use a mouse, you must use the following controls to perform functions otherwise handled by the mouse. All other IBM keyboard commands noted in the manual operate normally.
        Menus: All menus listed in the Menu Bar may be opened by pressing the Alt key plus the first letter of the menu's name. Use the arrow keys or the numeric keypad keys to move the menu highlight up or down. The keypad 8 key moves the highlight up and the 2 key moves the highlight down. Press the return key to select the option that is highlighted.
        Buttons: Almost all buttons are operated in the same manner. Enter the key for the first letter of the button's name to press the button. The only exceptions are the "Info" buttons on the Intelligence Report which are numbered and opened by pressing the correct number key.

Map Display

        At the map display, press the Tab key to turn on the map cursor. This white box appears on the currently active unit or at the center of the map window. The cursor may be moved around the map using the numeric keypad keys. When the cursor is moved off of the map window, the map scrolls, re-centering on the cursor.
        Jump Map: You can jump around the map faster by holding down the Shift key while pressing the keypad direction keys.
        Activating Units: Units on sentry duty or fortified may be activated by moving the cursor onto their map square and pressing the Return key. This opens a menu of the units in the square. Highlight any unit you wish to activate and press the Return key again. When you have finished activating units in the square, press the Escape key to return to the map.
        Opening City Display: To open a city display, move the cursor onto the city's map square and press the Return key.

City Display

        All buttons on the city display are operated by pressing the first letter of the button's name.
        City Map Changes: To remove people from the workforce or rearrange where the people are working on the city map press the P key. This places the cursor on the city square. Use the arrow or keypad keys to move the cursor around the city map. When the cursor is on the square from which you wish to remove the people, press the Return key. This removes the workers from the square and converts one citizen in the population roster to a specialist.
        To put a specialist back to work on the map, move the cursor to the correct empty square and press Return. The specialist converts back to a normal citizen and the square goes back into development.
        If you currently have no specialists and press return while the cursor is on an empty square, the workforce is rearranged on the map as your advisors recommend.
        When you are finished making changes on the city map, press the Escape key.
        Specialists: Each time you create a specialist, he appears as an Entertainer in the population roster. Specialists are numbered 1-8, beginning from the left. You can convert Entertainers to Taxmen and Scientists by pressing the number key that corresponds to the Specialist. For example, to convert the second Entertainer from the left into a Scientist, press the 2 key twice. The first press of the 2 key converts him into a taxman and the second converts the taxman into a scientist. A third press makes him an entertainer again.
        Specialists are converted back to normal citizens by putting them back to work on the city map, as explained above.
        Selling Improvements: To sell and improvement, press the S key. This turns the improvement roster into a normal menu with a highlight bar. Move the highlight bar to the improvement you wish to sell and press return. The improvement is sold and disappears from the roster.
        Activating Units: Units on sentry duty or fortified within the city may be activated from the information window. Press the Info button to show the units if they are not already visible. Sentry units are faded out and fortified units have a black border around them. To activate these units, press the A key. This makes the first unit blink. Use the keypad direction keys to move the cursor to the unit you wish to activate and press the return key. This activates the unit. When you are finished activating units, press the Escape key.


        Although the software is not protected against copying, there is a form of paper protection included. After every 50 turns you are asked to answer a simple question regarding the civilization advances included in the game. You are shown the picture of an advance and asked to choose the prerequisites for it from a list. You are given a range of pages in which the correct answer can be found. Because this special version of Civilization has a different manual from store-bought versions of the game, the page numbers listed are incorrect. To answer the quiz, find the name of the advance in the Copy Protection Answers section of this manual, and select the prerequisites listed with it.


TerrainMovement Point CostDefense BonusEconomic ValueIMRoad
Arctic20%nothingno effectno effectno effect
Desert10%R+1 F+1 R +1 T
Forest250%F RRPlainsno effectno effect
Grassland150%FF R?+1 FForest+1 T
Hills2100%F+1 F+3 Rno effect
Jungle250%FGrasslandForestno effect
Mountains3200%Rno effect+1 Rno effect
Ocean10%F TTno effectno effectno effect
Plains10%F R+1 FForest+1 T
Rivers150%FF R?+1 Fno effectno effect
Swamp250%FGrasslandForestno effect
Tundra10%Fno effectno effectno effect


1. I=irrigation or agriculture improvement; M = mining or industrial improvement; F = food; R = resources; T = trade; R? = 50% chance of resource being present.
2. Government effects: Economic value of any commodity that equals three units or higher is -1 unit under Despotism/ Anarchy. Trade is +1 for any square already generating trade under Republic/ Democracy.
3. Movement along Roads costs 1/3 movement points per square.
4. Railroads increase all commodities by 50%, rounded down. Movement along Railroads costs 0 movement points.

Special Resources

TerrainMovement Point CostDefense BonusEconomic ValueIMRoad
Coal2100%F RR+1 F+3 Rno effect
Fish10%FFF TTno effectno effectno effect
Game (For.)250%FFF RRHorsesno effectno effect
Game (Tun.)10%FFFno effectno effectno effect
Gems250%F TTTTGrasslandGameno effect
Gold3200%R TTTTTTno effect+1 Rno effect
Horses10%F RRR+1 FGame+1 T
Oasis10%FFF R+1 F+1 R+1 T
Oil250%F RRRRGrasslandGameno effect
Seals20%FFno effectno effectno effect

        Civilization casts you as the ruler of an entire civilization through many generations, from the founding of the first cities 6,000 years ago to the imminent colonization of space. It combines the forces that shaped history and the evolution of technology in a competitive environment. You have great flexibility in your plans and strategies, but to survive, you must successfully respond to the forces that historically shaped the past.
        When play begins, your civilization is small and requires only a few decisions each turn. But each decision can have important ramifications later. A number of displays make it easy to understand the issues and implement action. If you prove an able ruler, your civilization grows larger and even more interesting to manage. Inevitable contact with neighbors opens new doors of opportunity: treaties, embassies, sabotage, trade, and war.
        As time passes, the number of important decisions required each turn increases. First you must think tactically: location of cities, production of military units or city improvements, exploration of the immediately surrounding lands. Soon, strategic plans must be formulated: war or peace with immediate neighbors, when to explore and expand overseas, when to change your type of government, where to focus technological research.
        The success of the civilization that you build depends upon your decisions. As ruler, you manage the economy, diplomacy, explorations, technology research, and war machine. Your policies must be flexible in an evolving world. Military units inevitably become obsolete and need replacement as more advanced technologies appear. The balance of power among your rivals can shift. Economic and governmental policies may have to be modified, lest you fall behind in critical technologies.
        The past civilizations of Alexander the Great, the Hittities, Napoleon, Genghis Khan, and others all held pride of place on the world's stage at one time, but all eventually collapsed. You are challenged in Civilization to build an empire that stands the test of time. You may succeed where your predecessors failed. If you locate cities properly, build them soundly, defend them aggressively, and neutralize the danger from potential enemies, the descendants of your tribe may not only survive, but lead the colonization of space.

        Civilizations appeared as agriculture and technology developed to the point where humankind could gather food and live in cities. With only part of the population needed to provide food for all, the rest could afford to specialize in the tool making, trading, engineering, and managing, that urbanization made possible. Specialization improved efficiency and production. Cities encouraged a rapid exchange of ideas. A teacher could reach many students at once, not just a few.
        City residents cultivated the nearby fields, logged the forests, and gathered fish from the rivers, returning each night with the result of their labors. This produce and raw material was bartered in the city markets for the goods and services of others. Charcoal from one area and iron ore from another might be taken into the town smelter who made the iron that the blacksmith turned into tools.
        But cities developed unique problems. As they grew in size it became more difficult to provide sufficient food from nearby farmland. Over- crowding, menial jobs, and living conditions often led to unrest among the poorer citizens. Prosperous cities became tempting targets for rival civilizations and barbarian invaders. Cities and civilizations that developed better management and new solutions to these grew and prospered. Those that failed have left their ruins around the world as warnings.
        In Civilization, as in history, a key step and a fundamental concept is the founding and management of cities. The civilization you are about to rule begins as a prehistoric wandering tribe that has just reached that critical stage where it is capable of building cities. The first step is to build one city and from there expand. As your civilization grows, cities will spread over several islands and continents.
        Each city acts as a giant processing plant for the food, resources, and trade of the adjacent lands. The people of a city go out and work the nearby farmland, mines, forests, and the city converts the result of their labor into more people, armies, cash, luxury goods, temples, universities, etc. Raw materials are transformed by cities into the power and ideas your civilization needs to prosper.
        Food that is collected feeds the local population. When there is a food surplus the population grows. Your first city has a small population that can only work part of the land the city controls. As the city population grows, more land can be worked, increasing production. Before long you can afford to send settlers from the first city to another nearby.
        Resources are the lumber, metals, energy sources, and other raw materials that are used in industry. Through the craftsmen and shops of the city these resources are made into items useful at home or elsewhere in your civilization. Larger cities normally generate more resources and thus build things faster. Each city can build only one item at a time. This could be a military unit such as a Phalanx or Battleship, a city improvement such as a Temple or University, or perhaps a Wonder of the World.
        Trade is generated by the highways of commerce: roads, rivers, and oceans. All nearby trade passes through the city bringing in luxury goods, cash, and new ideas. Your policies can adjust how trade is divided among luxury goods, cash, or research. There may be times when a city requires more luxury goods to make more people happy, or times when more tax revenues are needed in the treasury. Higher taxes mean more revenue, but may result in more people becoming unhappy.
        As your cities grow they require more care in keeping them productive. Large cities are desirable for production but have inherent problems. A critical one you must deal with is the happiness of the population. The people can range from happy, to content, to unhappy. Having to many unhappy people may lead to revolt.
        Luxury goods make people happy but may mean fewer tax revenues or a reduced flow of technology. By adjusting the flow of luxuries, changing types of government, building city improvements, instituting martial law, and other means, it is possible to keep even the largest city content and productive.
        Technology is a second concept fundamental to Civilization. To make the transition from wandering hunter-gatherers to city dwellers, humankind had to possess some essential knowledge and skills. To advance beyond the first stages of city dwelling requires a corresponding advance in knowledge.
        At the start of Civilization, with your tribe poised on the threshold of history, they already possess some basic knowledge. The people understand agriculture, irrigation, construction of roads, and the construction of homes and other buildings. But this isn't enough knowledge to survive through the coming ages. Learning new technologies opens the door to new abilities. A small island-bound civilization that learns Map Making can now build ships and expand overseas.
        The time it takes to acquire new technology depends on how much of your trade is allotted to new ideas. You must choose between luxuries that make the people happy, cash for the treasury, and technology research. The more trade allocated to this research, the faster the next step is acquired. When enough research has been done, your civilization acquires the new technology and can begin working on something new.
        The world where your civilization exists is mostly unknown to you, a mystery except in the immediate vicinity. To find out more about it you must explore. Not only is the world hidden, but also unknown are the locations of other civilizations.
        Other civilizations, especially those nearby, complicate your tasks as ruler. Each is ruled by one of your peers, and they are competing for the same resources and opportunities as you. They also are looking to expand and grow; at your expense if given the chance. Once contact is made, you can no longer concentrate solely on the growth and expansion of your civilization. Now you must assess the strength of rivals, adequately provide for the defense of your cities in case of war, or consider making war yourself.
        Successful wars can be very useful. Capturing cities is much easier than building them up from nothing, and may provide loot in stolen technology and cash. Weakening rivals reduces the threat they pose. However, long, costly wars may allow unengaged rivals to expand and grow in strength while you spend resources on arms.
        To explore the unknown and contend with your rivals, you can build armies, navies, and other special units in your cities. Once an army or naval unit has been built, it is available for movement and combat. These units extend the power of your civilization around the world. When they enter hidden areas of the world, the shroud of mystery is removed and that area becomes known. In this way you uncover the world, finding suitable areas for new cities and eventually making contact with other civilizations.
        Three special units are available that can be useful to a ruler. Settlers are groups of citizens that are your pioneers. They may found new cities and also build terrain improvements such as roads, irrigation, and mines that increase the productivity of your cities. Diplomats are your emissaries and spies. They can establish embassies with rivals and also perform a number of cloak and dagger tasks. Caravans are bands of merchants that transport the produce of your cities around the world to other cities, bringing in cash and establishing trade routes. Trade routes increase the trade of the home city, resulting in more cash, luxuries, and technology.
        Wonders of the World are unique city improvements, usually structures, that can only built once in the entire world. Once a particular Wonder is built by a city, no other city may build it. Each Wonder brings glory to the civilization owning it, and some unique tangible benefit as well. For example, if one of your cities builds the Oracle, all Temples throughout your civilization become twice as effective in making people content.
        The fundamental concepts for a successful civilization are the expansion and growth of your cities, and acquiring new technology. In a word, you must grow. In this dynamic world environment, surrounded by rivals in unknown corners, there is no future in complacency and stagnation. You must press forward on all three fronts: spread your cities out to claim a significant share of the world, increase the size and production of each city, and strive to acquire the latest technology.
        Your civilization cannot afford to lag to far behind in any of these three spheres. A sufficient number of powerful cities can maintain the quantity of your military in any arms race. Keeping abreast of technology assures the quality.
        The Hittites on antiquity had a brief moment of glory because the technology of their weapons was superior to that of their neighbors. But those neighbors had much larger populations, and when they acquired the same technologies, the Hittites were ushered off the world's stage.
        Cortez landed at the Aztec city of Vera Cruz with only a few hundred conquistadors, but with the aid of superior weapons and diplomacy, he soon had Montezuma crying in his chocolate. The Aztecs were deposed because they could not learn the technology of the Spanish.
        Do what you can to keep your civilization growing in every area. More and larger cities, better technology, and better armies mean survival. Each city must be planned, managed, and protected so that it contributes to the power and glory of your civilization.
        By maintaining this pattern of growth over the years, you have the best chance of avoiding the fate of the Hittites and Montezuma.


Sorting the Materials

        This manual provides detailed instructions on how to play and gives information on the background of the topic. It applies to all computer systems, but specific references are given for use with an IBM system, for which the game was first designed.

Learning the Game

        Study Method: You can study the actual controls and instructions in this manual. Now begin play and refer back to the instructions as needed.
        Jump Right In Method: This is the most popular with experienced game players. We recommend you at least read the sections Cities and Civilizations, Interface Introduction, and Ending the Game and Winning, but even this is not necessary. Refer to the manual for help with problems that arise.

        Because Civilization was developed on an IBM system, the following discussion of the interface pertains to that version.
        The interface of Civilization is designed to take advantage of the mouse. It may be played with a keyboard-only interface, but play is faster if you have a mouse available.
        The interface operates mainly through two main game displays, the map display and the city display. Each of these displays is described in detail in its own manual section. Across the top of the map display is a menu bar. From the menus available here you can reach additional game functions and information not available from the displays.
        The interface relies heavily on menus that are used in a similar manner. Labeled buttons are also used in several places to perform a game function or reach further information.
        Using the Mouse: To click the mouse on some part of the game, move the torch that is the pointer onto the desired location and click the correct mouse button.
        The IBM mouse has two buttons and the interface makes a distinction between them. The left mouse button (LMB) is used to perform actions such as scrolling the map or activating a unit.
        Menu Choices: Throughout the manual you are instructed to pull down menus to open them up and reveal the options they contain. To open a menu using the mouse, place the pointer on the name of the menu in the menu bar and press the LMB. If you click the button the menu opens and stays open. Alternatively, you can press and hold the button, and then drag the pointer down the list of options.
        When playing with the keyboard-only interface a shortcut key can be used to open the menus of the menu bar.
        Menu Choices: To choose a menu option, place the mouse pointer on your selection and click the LMB.
        Alternatively, if you pull down a menu, the options are highlighted as you pass over them. When the option you wish is highlighted, let the mouse button go to make your selection.
        From the keyboard, you make menu selections by using the keypad 8 and 2 keys to move the highlight bar up and down the menu until the choice you want is highlighted. Press the Return key to make your choice.
        Pressing Buttons: To press a labeled button, click on it with the LMB.
        Shortcut keys: Even when using the mouse, there are places when one keystroke can save several steps. Included in the interface are several of these shortcuts.

Map Interface

        The map interface is explained in detail in the manual section, The Map Display. However, a few important commands are included here to help get started.
        Map Scrolling: Click the LMB on any unoccupied map square to center it in the display. Click the LMB on any part of the world map in the world window to center the map display on that part of the world.
        Current Unit: The unit on the map that is blinking is the current unit. It is waiting for you to give it orders. You can move it with the key-pad number keys corresponding the map direction you wish it to move.

City Display Interface

        The display interface is explained in detail in the manual section, The City Display. A few important commands are included below.
        Opening/Closing City Display: Clock the LMB on a city on the map to open its city display. Press the exit button to close the display and return to the map.
        Production: Press the Change button above the production box to open a menu of items that can be built.

        The beginning of Civilization requires you to make a number of choices regarding the parameters and world of the game you wish to play. To start, first boot the game. After the title and credits appear, you proceed to the selection of the following pre-game options.

Game/ World Options

        The first menu that appears asks you to choose which game to load:
        Start a New Game: If this option is chosen a new game is begun on a newly generated world. This world resembles Earth in land mass, climate, and rainfall. The new game begins in 4000 BC.
        Load a Saved Game: Choose this option to load a previously saved game. As prompted, enter the letter of the drive where your saved games are located and press the Return key (for the IBM). When the list of saved games appears, select the game you wish to load. (For the IBM, use the keypad keys/ Return key.)
        EARTH: Choose this option to play on Earth. Your rivals are tribe placed in their historical locations.
        Customize World: Choose this option to adjust your game world as you wish. From the menus that appear, choose an amount of land mass, average temperatures, amount of moisture, and starting date. The middle option of each menu is the default Earth-like world.
        View Hall of Fame: Choose this option to open the Hall of Fame. For a description of the Hall of Fame, see the manual section Ending The Game and Winning. After viewing the Hall of Fame you return to the Game/World Option menu.

Setting the Stage

        When starting a new game, regardless of where, a presentation of the planet's history precedes the game start and is shown while the world is generated. You can clear the screen to skip this story (press the Return key or spacebar on the IBM), but it may take some time anyway to generate the new world.

Difficulty Levels

        Choose the level of difficulty at which you wish to play. A number of factors are adjusted at each level, including the time it takes to produce new units and the pace of technological advance.
        Chieftan: This is the easiest level and is recommended for first- time players. The game provides advice when the player must make decisions.
        Warlord: Rivals are somewhat tougher. Technology takes longer to acquire. For the occasional player who doesn't want too difficult a test.
        Prince: Rivals are substantially tougher and technology comes much slower. You will need some experience and skill to win at this level.
        King: Rivals are most evenly matched with you in capability. Experienced and skilled players will play most of their games at this level as it is a strong challenge with victory far from foregone.
        Emperor: The most difficult level and only for those who feel the need tp be humbled. This level can be won, but not consistently.

Level of Competition

        Choose between 3 and 7 civilizations in the world. More opponents is not necessarily more dangerous. The fewer the opponents, the more time you have to peaceably expand and develop before meeting rivals. More opponents means earlier contact and the risk of war. But contact with other civilizations offers opportunities for trade, alliances, and the spoils of war.

Pick Your Tribe

        Select your tribe from the menu of options. Where your first unit is placed on the map and the proximity of rivals is determined randomly except on Earth. In this case, the civilizations are chosen somewhat randomly but the ones chosen do start near their historic locale.

Your Name

        Type is a suitably impressive name for yourself that contains no more that 14 letters. Enter the name when you have finished typing it (Press the Return key on the IBM.) The program will suggest a name that you can accept if you can't think of something better.

        Civilization is played in a series of turns, each following a sequence of play options. As each turn proceeds through the sequence, you direct the activities of your civilization, including the management of your cities, the production of new units, the building of city improvements, the movements and battles of your armies, and negotiations with other civilizations.
        Each turn proceeds through the following sequence of play.


        A new turn begins with the advancing of the date. Depending on the current year, the date advances from twenty years to one year. The current date is found in the date window of the map display.


        At the beginning of a new turn there is a possibility of a natural disaster striking a city in the world. Any disaster that occurs is reported and takes effect immediately. Disasters can result in loss of population or the destruction of a city improvement. Most disasters can be prevented by a specific city improvement or technology. If the target city is prepared for the disaster, then the disaster does not occur.

City Check

        Each city in your civilization is checked immediately for production, growth, unrest, maintenance, and scientific research. These concepts are explained in detail in the manual chapter Cities. All steps are carried out for one city before the next is checked.
        Production: If the city produces sufficient surplus resources to complete the item the city is producing, that item is added to the city.
        If your city does not produce sufficient resources to support all of the existing units for which it is the home city, units are destroyed until enough support is available. Unit farthest away from the city are destroyed first.
        Growth: If the city produces sufficient surplus food, it grows by one population point. This added population is put to work on the city map.
        Disorder: If the number of unhappy citizens exceeds the number of happy citizens due to population growth or the destruction of a city improvement by disaster, your city goes into civil disorder. You receive a message reporting this condition.
        If this is the first turn of disorder, you jump ahead to the affected city's display so that adjustments can be made to return the city to order. If the situation is not corrected, in following turns you are notified that disorder continues.
        Maintenance: Taxes collected from the city are added to your treasury. Then maintenance costs for improvements in this city are deducted. If you don't have sufficient funds in your treasury to pay the maintenance costs, one improvement is this city, chosen by local leaders, is sold.
        Note that when your civilization as a whole may have a revenue surplus for the turn, you can still lose an improvement when your treasury is low. High maintenance costs for the first cities checked may deplete the treasury and force a sale before later cities contribute their cash surpluses.
        Scientific Research: The research contributed by this city, measured by the number of light bulbs it produces, is added to the total so far accumulated by your civilization. If this total is sufficient to acquire the technology you have instructed your scientists to study, you receive a message informing you that you have obtained this new technology.

Movement and Combat

        After each city has been checked, you have the opportunity to move your active units. While a unit is moving it may engage in combat.
        Each active unit is designated for movement, one after another. Each unit has the option of moving, not moving, or delaying its move until later in the turn.
        Combat occurs when a unit attempts to enter a map square occupied by a unit or city of another civilization. (Exceptions are made for Diplomats and Caravans.) Normally, either the attacking unit or all defensive units are destroyed when combat is resolved. A victorious unit with movement points left may continue moving and even attack again.
        During this movement phase you may pause to perform all other management tasks for your civilization. You may wish to consult with your advisors concerning the state of your civilization's trade, or science, or check the attitude of your population. You can examine any or all of your cities to adjust their work forces or production. This is the time to change tax rates, governments, or examine the state of international affairs.
        When all active units have been moved, your game turn is over and the next civilization moves.

End of Turn

        Once all active units have been moved, your game turn may end. At this point, a blinking "End of Turn" message appears in the unit identification window. As long as this message is visible you may still examine cities, consult advisors, etc. To end the turn, follow the prompt to continue the game. (On the IBM, press the Return key.) Once you choose to continue, you cannot examine cities, etc., until the next turn.
        The End of Turn message may be toggled on/off from the Game menu. Open this menu and choose "Options". One of the options on this menu is "End of Turn". There is a checkmark next to the option indicating that it is on and is to appear at the end of each turn. To turn off the message, choose "End of Turn", and the check mark disappears.
        Even when the End of Turn message is turned off, it still appears during any turn in which you have no active units.
        When the End of Turn message is off, you receive no warning that the turn is about to end. At the moment you move your last unit, your turn is over and the next civilization begins to move.


        After all of the civilizations have taken their turns, there is a brief pause while the record keepers and historians examine your accomplishments to date. The people of your civilization may reward the outstanding success of your policies by expanding and improving your palace. In addition, independent historians and chroniclers may report on where you or your civilization stands compared to your rivals.
        Palace: As your population grows, the people spontaneously expand and improve your palace to reflect the glory your leadership has achieved. When the total population of your civilization reaches certain milestones, you may increase the size or quality of your palace.
        Clear the screen (press Return, the Spacebar, or either mouse button for the IBM) after the people offer to improve your palace. When a picture of the current palace appears, select whether you want an existing part improved or a new part added. Click on a button below a part of the palace to improve it or click on a button just off the edge of the palace to add to it.
        From the available parts then displayed, select the one you wish to have built. Palaces can be built in three styles: classical, medieval, or Middle Eastern. A miniature rendition of your palace is shown in the palace window of the map display.
        Historians: There are four historians who occasionally report on the progress of the civilizations in your world. These repots are an opportunity for you to judge how you are doing. The historians are Herodotus, Pliny, Gibbon, and Toynbee.
        Civilizations may be judged in any of five categories, listed below. The published list includes only the known civilizations, those with whom you have established an embassy. However, all civilizations, known and unknown, are considered in rankings. For example, if your civilization has the third highest population but the larger civilizations are not known, you would appear at the top of the list, but shown as number three in the world. The five categories and how they are ranked follow.
        Advancement: The number of technology advancements each civilization has acquired.
        Happiness: The number of happy people in each civilization's cities.
        Power: The total of the attack and defense factors of each civilization's military units.
        Size: The population of each civilization.
        Wealth: The size of each civilization's treasury.

        Civilization may be ended in five ways. You may quit at any time, retire at any time, be destroyed by a rival, continue on until the game and the history of your civilization both automatically end, or conquer the world by eliminating all other civilizations. If you retire or let the game run its course the performance of your civilization is judged and compared against your peers. If you have been a good manager and leader, your name may be added to the Civilization Hall of Fame.
        Although the game ends for scoring purposes after you win, you may be added to the Civilization Hall of Fame.
        Although the game ends for scoring purposes after you win, you may continue playing if you choose. After winning, you are offered the opportunity to keep playing if you wish to see what more you can accomplish. No additional score is kept for this extra play.

Ending Play

        Quitting: You may quit during your civilization's turn by pressing the Quit key (Alt + Q on the IBM). You must be at the map display and one of your units must be awaiting orders (blinking on the map). You may not quit when another civilization is taking its turn or from any other display. When you quit, you are given one chance to change your mind. You are not shown your civilization score or entered into the Hall of Fame.
        Retiring: To retire, open the Game menu and choose the option "Retire." You are given one chance to change your mind. If you proceed to retire, you are shown your civilization score and entered into the Hall of Fame if you qualify.
        Destruction: If your civilization is destroyed by on of your rivals, the game automatically ends. You are not given a chance to start over in this world. Since you can have no score, you cannot qualify for the Hall of Fame. You may view a replay of the world's history. To play again, you must start over with a new world.
        Automatic Ending: A game of Civilization ends when a spaceship containing colonists from any civilization reaches the nearby Alpha Centauri star system. All play temporarily ceases. Your final civilization score is reported and you are entered into the Hall of Fame if you qualify. However, you do not necessarily have to quit playing. Although your score is not recorded hereafter, if you wish, you may continue playing to see what the future holds. From this time on you must quit to stop playing.
        Conquer the World: If you succeed in eliminating all other civilizations in the world, the game automatically ends. This is the ultimate achievement possible by a civilization. You are shown your civilization score and may be entered into the Hall of Fame. You may review a replay of the world's history.
        End of Game: All games automatically end for scoring purposes by a certain date, if they haven't ended sooner for other reasons. Depending on your level of difficulty selection, scoring ceases in the following years: Chieftan - 2100 AD, Warlord - 2080 AD, Prince - 2060 AD, King - 2040 AD, and Emperor - 2020 AD.


        You win a game of Civilization by eliminating all rival civilizations; or by surviving until the colonization of space begins.
        The elimination of all other civilizations in the world is very hard to accomplish. You are much more likely to win by being in existence when colonists reach Alpha Centauri. Even if the colonists are not yours, the successful direction of your civilization through the centuries is an achievement. You have survived countless wars, the pollution of the industrial age, and the risks of nuclear weapons.
        When the game is won by either method, your skill as a ruler is measured by a final civilization score.
        Civilization Score: This is the sum of the following factors, plus any bonus for space colonists or conquering the world.
                2 points: each happy citizen
                1 point: each content citizen
                20 points: each Wonder of the World
                3 points: each turn of peace (no war anywhere)
                5 points: each futuristic advance your civilization acquires
                (-) 10 points: each map square polluted
        Space Colonists Bonus: In addition to the above points, if your spaceship is the first to reach Alpha Centauri you can receive a bonus score. This is 50 points per 10,000 colonists sent, multiplied by the success rate of your mission. For example, if your spaceship arrives with 10,000 colonists and the success percentage of your expedition was 80%, then you receive 40 bonus points.
        Conquering the world bonus: If you succeed in conquering the world, you receive up to 1000 civilization points, plus a bonus for the date. The faster you conquer the world, the higher the bonus.

The Hall of Fame

        The Hall of Fame records the best five civilizations that you have built, listed in order of their civilization ranking. This ranking is determined from the basic civilization score multiplied by a difficulty factor and a competition factor. The higher the civilization ranking, the higher the position in the Hall of Fame.
        You can check the Hall of Fame when starting a new game from the pre-game options menu. Upon retirement or the automatic end of a game, you go to the Hall of Fame even if you don't qualify to enter.
        While at the Hall of Fame you may clear all of the current entries if you wish. (On the IBM, click the Clear button.)

        The world surrounding your civilization is an entire planet consisting of several continents, islands, and ocean. A totally new planet can be generated each game or your civilization can attempt to prosper on Earth itself. All planets are bordered by impenetrable polar ice caps to the north and south, but are not bounded east and west. Moving off the east edge brings you back to the west edge.
        New worlds are Earth-like in terms of temperature, moisture, and land mass. These factors can be adjusted if you wish to experiment with different combinations.
        You begin with almost no knowledge of the world. The wandering tribe that is the ancestor of your civilization (represented by one or more Settler units) has explored only that part of the world that it occupies or can see nearby. The rest of the world and the other civilizations putting down their roots are hidden, over the mountains, through the forests, and across the seas. As your units move and explore, they discover more of the world, important resource sites, minor tribes, and, eventually, evidence of rival civilizations.

World Geography

        The world is divided into small independent parts known as squares. Each square consists of a unique type of terrain. Each type of terrain has its own economic usefulness, effect on movement, and effect on combat. Detailed information about terrain types is available from the Terrain Chart in the Technical Notes section or in the Civilopedia.
        The economic usefulness of the various terrains is important when selecting city sites. The terrain that is close to a city produces food, resources, and trade the city needs to grow and be productive. Some terrain types are more valuable than others. Some may be irrigated or mined for increased economic value, and others may be converted into another type of terrain.
        When selecting sites for new cities, consider the terrain types within the radius of the prospective city. The best city sites offer immediate food, resources, and trade production, plus the potential for long term development.
        A brief description of the terrain types follows.
        Arctic: Frozen glaciers of ice and snow found near the north and south poles. No food, resources, or trade can be obtained here.
        Desert: Very dry region that can be developed to be marginally productive. Some resources are present that can be mined, food can be produced if the desert is irrigated, and roads generate some trade.
        Grassland: These open lands have especially thick topsoils making them excellent food producing areas. Food production can be increased by irrigation. Roughly half of the Grasslands also have some resources, making them excellent city sites. Grasslands may be converted into Forests for increased resource production.
        Hills: An area of rolling hills that offers easy access to minerals, sources of water, pastures, and some possibility for agriculture. When mined, Hills produce excellent resources. They also produce some food and can be irrigated if necessary. Irrigating Hills allows the irrigation to pass on to further squares that may be otherwise cut off from water.
        Jungle: These areas of forest and dense jungle produce relatively poor amounts of food and no resources. But they can be made much more valuable by conversion into either Grasslands or Forest. For this reason, the long term potential of a city site containing several Jungles is good.
        Mountains: This very rugged terrain can only produce a small amount of resources but this can be increased by mining. Mountains make the best defensive terrain, but the production is so low that they make a poor economic choice for the site of a city.
        Ocean: Oceans produce small amounts of food, but substantial trade. Only ships or aircraft can enter Oceans. Landlocked Oceans are really lakes but are treated like other Oceans in all respects.
        Plains: These open areas differ from Grasslands in having poorer soil but better resources of timber and minerals. They are poor food producers unless irrigated. Due to the presence of resources, they make good choices for city sites. Plains may be converted into forests.
        Rivers: Rivers are great sites for starting cities and civilizations dues to the richness of riverbank soils and natural trade routes for boats. Rivers are as good as Grasslands for producing food and always generate trade. River terrain may be irrigated to increase food production. It was no accident that the first civilizations sprang up along rivers.
        Swamp: These coastal wetlands and flooded interior lands produce only a small quantity of food. Like Jungles, however, they can be converted into Grasslands or Forest.
        Tundra: These sparse lands of permafrost produce only a small amount of food from grazing animals. There is no agriculture or use for irrigation. These areas cannot be converted to other terrain and make very poor city sites.
        Forest: These woodlands produce a modest mixture of food and resources. If more food production is needed in the area, they can be converted into plains.

Special Resources

        Special resources can occur in many terrains and add significantly to their economic value. The location of these resources is marked by distinct symbols that are uncovered as the map is explored. More detailed information about special resources can be found on the Terrain Chart in the Technical Notes section or under the entry for their base terrain in the Civilopedia. A brief description of the special resources follows.
        Coal (Hills): Coal deposits represent rich sites of coal or metal ores, which yield greatly increased resources, especially when mined.
        Fish (Ocean): Fish represent the location of underwater banks and reefs where currents and nutrients create excellent fishing grounds. Fishing banks produce increased amounts of food.
        Game (Forest and Tundra): The presence of game indicates excellent food sources available or the potential for good grazing. Game areas produce additional food, but cannot be improved.
        Gems (Jungle): Gems indicate the presence of precious stones, ivory, spices, salt, or other valuable commodities. These are good trade items and therefore generate substantial trade from the area.
        Gold (Mountain): Gold represents a bonanza of gold or silver. The value of these deposits produces tremendous trade.
        Horses (Plains): Horses represent an increase in resources from this area due to the benefits of using domesticated animals such as the horse or oxen to do work. For all but the most recent periods of history, animals were an important source of lifting and pulling power.
        Oasis (Desert): The oasis is a very fertile island in the desert that takes advantage of the presence of some water and rich local nutrients. The result is an area that produces substantial quantities of food.
        Oil (Swamp): Oil represents the presence of mineral wealth, especially petroleum. The result is a substantial quantity of resources. Oil resources cannot be improved by mining.
        Note: If you convert terrain containing a special resource into another terrain type, the original special resource is lost. In some cases a special resource that can be found in the new terrain may appear.

Minor Tribes

        During exploration, minor tribes may be discovered in the world. These are small tribes that have not yet advanced to be civilizations. If you enter a minor tribe's village by moving onto it, a number of things may happen. You may discover a scroll of ancient wisdom that advances your civilization, your magnificence may inspire them to become civilized and found a new city in your empire, or they may prove to be extremely violent barbarians.

        This is the display most commonly used during play. From here you control the movement and combat of units throughout the world, monitor the moves and development of other civilizations, and summon the reports of advisors. From the map display you can examine he known geography of any part of your empire and those of your rivals. The map display consists of six parts: the map window, the world window, the menu bar, the palace window, the status report, and the unit identification window.

Map Window

        The large map window in the display shows one part of the world map in detail. Here you can examine the terrain, control the movements of units, scout sites for new cities, and prepare war plans.
        When your civilization is just getting started, most of the world is unknown. The map is covered and hidden from view. As your units move and explore, the hidden areas are discovered and the map fills in. It is useful to uncover the world quickly to find good areas for expansion, absorb any minor tribes nearby, locate opposing civilizations, and determine likely avenues of approach by enemies.
        There are a number of ways to quickly change maps and otherwise look at different parts of the world. These are described below. (Interface controls are explained for using a mouse with an IBM system.)
        Change Maps: You can quickly scroll around the world changing the map visible in the map display. (On the IBM, click the LMB on any visible map square and the map scrolls, centering on the square you selected.) See the section World Window below for another way to quickly change maps.
        Center on Unit: You can center the map on the unit now waiting for orders (blinking), regardless of where it is in the world. If the waiting unit is not visible, the map scrolls so that the unit appears centered. Press the Center key. (On the IBM, press the C key.)
        Find City: You can center the map on any known city in the world. Pull down the Game menu from the menu bar and choose the option "Find City." Type in the name of the city and press Return (on the IBM). The map scrolls and centers on the city. If you have not yet discovered the location of a city, nothing happens when you try to find it using this method.
        Note that you do not need to type in the entire name of the city, just enough letters to distinguish it from any other city in the world.

World Window

        This window in the top left of the display shows a map of the entire world. It is centered on the part of the world currently shown in the map window. A box is positioned on this world map (colored white on the IBM) to show what part is now visible in the map window.
        In the early days of your civilization, while most of the map is still unknown, the world window is of little help in showing where you are located in relation to other islands and continents. Because this window centers on the map display, if most of the world is hidden, you cannot know where the polar caps are or even what hemisphere you occupy. You may be quite near one of the polar caps but not know it. After some exploration, you can better judge your location and that of your rivals.
        Map Scrolling: You can use the world window to speed the scrolling of the map display. (On the IBM, place the mouse pointer in the map window and click the LMB. The world window shifts and the map window scrolls to center on the position you pointed to.)

Menu Bar

        The menu bar is found across the top of the map display. From here orders may be passed to units and various reports from advisors may be summoned. There are five menus available: Game, Orders, Advisors, World, and civilopedia.
        The Orders menu lists any special commands that can be given to the unit waiting for orders, in addition to normal movement commands.
        The Advisors and World menus have special reports that can be requested from your various advisors.
        The Civilopedia menu gives access to the on-line encyclopedia of Civilization. Use this to quickly obtain information on many different topics such as technology advances, military units, military units, terrain, etc.
        The options available from the Game menu are the following.
        Revolution!: To change your civilization's type of government, you must have a revolution. The government goes into Anarchy for a few turns and a new type of government may be chosen. You must have acquired specific technologies to choose a government other than Despotism.
        Tax Rate: The trade that cities generate arrives as luxury goods, tax revenue, and new ideas (technology research). Here you can change the percentage that becomes tax revenue. See trade rates below or more information.
        Luxury Rate: Change the percentage of trade brought in as Luxury goods. See Trade Rates below for more information.
        Find City: Choose this to locate a city in the world. Type in the name of the city you wish to find. The map window centers on the city.
        Options: Choose this menu option to turn on or off some game features. Features available are Instant Advice, Autosave, End of Turn, and Animations. A check mark next to the feature indicates that it is on. Choosing an option that is on turns it off and vice versa.
        Instant Advice provides some helpful hints for new players. The Autosave feature automatically saves your game every 50 turns. When End of Turn is on, a message reports the end of each turn and must be cleared for the game to continue. If you have no active units, this message appears whether toggled on or off. Animations may be on or off.
        Save Game: Choosing this option stops play to save your game. (On the IBM, follow the prompts for entering the drive where you wish the game to be saved.)
        Retire: Ends the history of the civilization you now rule, calculating your score. If the score is high enough, you may enter the Hall of Fame. Note that your civilization is lost if not saved first.
        Quit: End the history of the civilization you rule. No score is calculated and your civilization is lost if not saved first.

Palace Window

        This presents a miniature rendition of your palace. Its breath and grandeur is a description of how well your civilization is progressing. If your civilization prospers an grows, the people recognize the glory of your leadership by periodically improving and expanding your palace. The relative magnitude or shoddiness of your palace is displayed for you, your advisors, and international emissaries to see.

Status Report

        The entries and symbols here report the current date and several facts concerning the status of your civilization.
        Date: The date is reported in years plus the notation BC or AD. The normal game begins in 4000 BC. Each turn represents the passing of so many years, depending on the current date.
        Treasury: The amount of cash in your treasury.
        Population: The size of your civilization's population.
        Trade Rates: The three numbers separate by periods are your trade rates. The first number is the percentage of your trade that provides luxuries. The second rate is the percentage that becomes tax revenue added to the treasury. The third rate is the percentage put towards new ideas to help learn new technology.
        Luxury goods are cultural pleasures like music, art, sports, and the theater that people enjoy when they have leisure time. The more luxuries that can be provided, the more happy citizens in your cities.
        Tax revenue goes into the treasury and is needed to maintain existing city improvements. Excess taxes over maintenance needs accumulate in the treasury and can be spent later. Taxes, especially high ones, tend to make the people unhappy.
        The more new ideas and scientific research accomplished, the faster new technology is acquired.
        Each of the three by-products of trade has its benefits. As time passes and cities grow, you may have to adjust the trade rates often to provide a minimum amount of taxes and science research while keeping the population content as a whole. To adjust trade rates, pull down the Game menu and choose either the Tax Rate or Luxury Rate option. By setting these two rates, the science rate is set by default.
        New Ideas: This scientific research indicator, shaped like a light bulb, shows how near you are to making a civilization advance. The nearer you get, the more the light bulb fills in (yellow on the IBM). When the bulb is full (bright yellow), it is on, indicating that you have acquired a new technology. Once the idea is reported and your scientists are sent off to study something else, the light bulb is turned off. As your scientists progress, it gradually turns on again.
        Environment: The environment indicator is the sun, and its color shows how great is the risk of global warming. When there is no risk of global warming, the sun indicator is not present. With the first case of pollution, the sun indicator appears (colored dark red on the IBM). If pollution continues, the color gradually changes (on the IBM to light red, yellow, and then white). If pollution is not brought under control when the indicator is brightest (white on the IBM), the planet suffers a bout of global warming and then the indicator reverts to a cooler color reflecting the new equilibrium.
        Pollution and environmental problems can also be caused by nuclear reactor meltdowns and fallout from nuclear weapons.

The Unit Identification Window

        The information reported here refers to the unit currently waiting for orders. This is the unit blinking. If the unit is not visible, press the Center key to center the map so that it is. (On the IBM, press the C key.)
        The following information is shown.
        Nationality: The name of the civilization to which the unit belongs.
        Unit type: The type of unit and whether it is a veteran or not.
        Movement: The number of movement points the unit has remaining. If you are finished moving a unit that has movement left, press the No Movement key (the Spacebar on the IBM) to skip to the next unit.
        Note that points are shown in thirds after the decimal point when moving along Roads because Roads triple movement. For example, a unit that begins with 1 movement point and moves one square along a Road would be shown with .2 movement points remaining.
        Also, units beginning on a square containing a Railroad and moving along the Railroad spend no movement points.
        Home City: The name of the city that is supporting the unit and normally the city where it was built. You may transfer a unit to another city by moving it there and pressing the Home City key (the H key on the IBM). This may be useful when one of your cities is threatened with capture because all units supported by a captured city are destroyed.
        Terrain: The terrain type of the square the unit is in. This terrain report disregards the presence of a city but does mention other improvements such as irrigation, roads, railroads, etc.
        Other Units: At the bottom of this window are shown any friendly units that also occupy this square. Units within a heavy black border are fortified. Units faded out are on sentry duty.

        As ruler of your civilization you decide what military units to build, where to deploy them, and when to fight. In addition you control parties of Settlers looking to found new cities, Diplomats, and Caravans seeking to establish trade routes.
        Through the years a majority of your time is spent moving and positioning armies. A strong military is required first for defense against rivals and barbarians. They are also the eyes of your civilization, exploring the world as they move. They can also serve you by defeating armies of your rivals and conquering their cities.
        Armies can be ground military units (Legions, Cannons, and Armor for example), naval units (Triremes, Ironclads, Battleships, etc.), or air units (Fighters and Bombers). Also available are four special units: Settlers, Diplomats, Caravans and Nuclear units. All unit types available are described in the Civilopedia section Military Units.
        After founding your first city, you may have the technology to build only two types of unit, Militia and Settlers. As your civilization acquires new technology, additional types become available for building. All new units that appear at the city where they are constructed and are available to be moved from that point.
        All units and Settlers have an attack factor (A), defense factor (D), and movement factor (M). The attack and defense factors indicate the army's relative strength when attacking and defending. The movement factor indicates how far the unit may move. In addition to moving and fighting, there are additional orders a unit may be given.


        Each turn, you may give orders to your units, one at a time. The unit waiting for orders blinks on the map. There are several order options available: move the unit across the map up to the limit of its movement factor, skip the unit if you prefer to move it later in the turn, or have it do nothing this turn.
        In addition you may order most units to fortify or go on sentry duty. Fortified or sentry units no longer require orders. In future turns they carry on and do not blink, waiting for orders. If you wish to move these units later, they must be activated individually.
        Moving Units: Units may be moved up to the limit of their movement factor. The cost to enter a map square depends on the terrain. Roads and Railroads speed the movement of ground units. When a unit is unable to complete a movement order because it does not have enough movement points to proceed, its movement is finished for the turn. The map then centers on the next unit waiting for orders.
        (On the IBM, units are moved across the map by using numeric keypad keys 1-9, but not 5. Units may be moved in any of eight directions corresponding to these eight outside keys. For example, pressing the 2 key moves the unit one square towards the bottom of the map.)
        Skipping Units: To skip a unit temporarily, press the Wait key (the W key on the IBM). This passes you on to other units waiting for orders and returns you to the skipped unit after all others have had a chance to move.
        No Movement: To order a unit not to move, press the No Movement key (the Space Bar on the IBM). The map centers on the next unit needing orders.
        Activating Units: Fortified units and those on sentry duty must be activated to receive movement orders. (On the IBM, place the mouse pointer on the square and click the left mouse button. This opens a menu displaying all units in the square. Click again on the icon of any unit you wish to activate.) Fortified or sentry units within a city must be activated from the city display. Sentry units are also activated when enemy units move adjacent to them.
        Movement Restrictions: Ground units (all non-ship, air, or nuclear units) normally move only on land. They may move over sea squares, but only by naval transport (see below). Ships may not enter squares entirely made up of land except cities that are on the coast. Air units may move over land and sea squares, but must land on a friendly city square or Aircraft Carrier unit to refuel.
        Ground units may not move from one square adjacent to an enemy army or city directly to another such square. The prohibited square may be adjacent to the first enemy army, another army (even one from another civilization), or any enemy city. Ground units may move into such a controlled square if a friendly unit is already there. Air units, ship units, Diplomats and Caravans ignore these restrictions.
        Naval Transport: Ground units may be carried over sea squares only by Triremes, Sails, Frigates, or Transports. Refer to the Civilopedia for specific information about these ship units.
        Units may load onto a ship by moving onto it from an adjacent land square. Also, units on sentry duty in a city with a ship automatically load when the ship leaves. Units aboard ship are on sentry duty.
        Units may unload when activated by the normal method of activation or by pressing the Unload key when the transporting ship is blinking. (On the IBM, press the U key.)


        Combat occurs when a unit from one civilization attempts to enter a square occupied by a unit of another civilization. When this happens a battle is immediately resolved, resulting in the destruction of one army or the other. When more than one unit is in the defender's square, the unit with the highest defense strength defends. If it loses, then all other armies stacked with it are destroyed as well. Successful attackers that have a full movement point remaining after combat may continue to move normally.
        The important factors in combat are the attack and defense strengths of the combatants, the presence of veterans, the terrain occupied by the defender, and any defensive improvements in the square. After all of these factors are considered, the combat is resolved as a simple calculation.
        For example, if a chariot (attack factor 4) attacks a phalanx (defense factor 2), the Chariot has a 67% chance of winning (4 out of 6) and the Phalanx 33% (2 out of 6). If both units were veterans, the odds are 6 to 3. If both are veterans and the Phalanx was behind City Walls (which triples the defense factor), the odds are 6 to 9.
        Shore bombardments, city attacks, nuclear attacks, and bribing enemy armies are special types of combat.
        Attack Strength: The basic attack strength of all armies. This full strength is brought to bear so long as the army has at least one movement factor remaining from movement. Armies with less movement available may still attack but are penalized. Armies with high movement rates may make several attacks each turn at full strength.
        Defense Strength: The basic defense strength of all armies.
        Veteran Status: Veteran armies have their attack and defense strengths increased by 50% before any other modification. Armies become veterans when built at cities containing the Barracks improvement, or they may become veterans after winning a battle.
        Terrain: Many of the world terrain types increase the strength of defenders. See the Terrain entries in the Civilopedia or the Terrain Chart in the Technical Supplement for details.
        Fortified Armies: Ground armies may fortify themselves, increasing their defense strength by 50%. An army that has any movement points remaining may be ordered to fortify on any land square by pressing the Fortify key (the F key on the IBM).
        Improvements: Armies within a Fortress have their strength doubled after all other modifications. Armies inside a city with City Walls are tripled in strength. Cities protected by City Walls do not suffer population losses.
        Attacking Cities: When a defender in a city is destroyed by ground attack, other defending units present are not destroyed. However, the population of the city is reduced by one point unless the city is protected by City Walls. Population loss does not occur due to naval or air attack, but is affected by nuclear attack.
        Shore Bombardments: Naval units with attack factors, other than Submarines, may attack enemy armies on adjacent land squares, including cities. Naval units in cities may defend against attack.
        Nuclear Attacks: Nuclear attacks occur when a Nuclear units attempts to enter a square occupied by enemy units or an enemy city. In either case, all units, regardless of civilization, in the target square and adjacent squares are destroyed. In addition, a city loses half of its population. Nuclear attack can only be stopped by the presence of an SDI Defense improvement in a city.

Additional Orders

        Units may be given a number of other orders besides movement (and combat caused by movement). Settlers and Diplomats may be given unique orders explained later.
        Go To: Orders an army to proceed to a destination square as fast as it can. The army continues moving turn after turn until it arrives. Press the Go To key (the G key on the IBM), and then designate the destination square. (On the IBM, point to the square with the mouse pointer and press the LMB.)
        Home City: Orders a unit to change its home city. Move the unit to the desired new home and press the Home key (the H key on the IBM). Air units in flight may use this key to move to the nearest friendly city. Press the Home key while the unit is in flight and it immediately moves to the nearest friendly city or Aircraft Carrier. If the air unit does not have enough movement remaining to reach the nearest base, it crashes instead.
        Sentry Duty: A unit on sentry duty is marked by a faded icon on the map. It no longer blinks each turn waiting for new orders. Sentry units are activated as explained above. Sentry units automatically board any transport ship that leaves a city they occupy. To put an army on sentry duty, press the Sentry key (the S key on the IBM).
        Disband: This order disbands the unit receiving it, removing the unit from the map and city records. To disband a unit, press the Disband key (the Shift + D keys on the IBM).
        Pillage: The first time this order is given, any terrain improvements (irrigation or mines) are destroyed. Further pillage in the square destroys railroads, if present, and then roads. For example, it takes three turns of pillaging to remove all Improvements from an irrigated square containing a railroad. To pillage, press the pillage key (the Shift + P keys on the IBM).


        Settlers are groups of your most resourceful and adventurous citizens. As independent pioneers they perform two critical functions for your civilization: they found new cities and serve as engineers.
        New Cities: To found a new city, move a Settler to the desired location and press the Build key (the B key on the IBM). The Settler disappears because the people is represents have become the population of the new city. However, in the future the new city can be ordered to produce more Settlers that can be used to found additional cities.
        The Build order can also be used to grow an existing city. Move a Settler into an existing city and press the Build key. The Settler is absorbed into the city, adding one point to its population. This may be useful when one city is limited in its ability to expand. This city can be used to produce Settlers who migrate to a larger more useful city where the Settlers can be put to work. However, Settlers may not be added to cities that already contain ten population points or more.
        Settler Engineers: Settlers can make a number of agricultural and industrial improvements for your civilization, acting as engineers. Place the Settler in the square where the work is to be done and press the correct key (see the box below). Note that your civilization must possess certain improvements can be built.


        Diplomats are unique units that can be very useful to your civilization. They may act as trade missions, ambassadors, envoys, secret agents, and saboteurs. They can open contacts with other civilizations and establish embassies to gather information about your rivals. They can act as spies, stealing information and otherwise disrupting your rivals. They can bribe enemy armies. When your civilization obtains the technology of Writing you can build Diplomats.
        Be aware that enemy Diplomats can be used against your civilization.
        Diplomat Movement: Diplomats may move past enemy armies without stopping. However, if any enemy military unit enters the square occupied by the Diplomat, the Diplomat is always destroyed. Diplomats may travel overseas as other armies do.
        Diplomats (and Caravans) are the only units that can enter defended enemy cities. When a Diplomat enters an enemy city a menu appears listing tasks that can be performed:
                Inspect City
                Establish Embassy
                Steal Technology
                Industrial Sabotage
                Incite A Revolt
                Meet With King
        Inspect City: This opens the enemy's city display. You can see what armies are defending it and what improvements have been made. When you clear the city screen (press the Return key or either mouse button on the IBM), you return to the map display but your diplomat has been eliminated.
        Establish Embassy: This Diplomat establishes official contact with the other civilization and continually reports thereafter its type of government, treasury, the name of its capital city, treaties with other civilizations, states of war, and technology advances the Diplomat uncovers. Lists by historians of outstanding civilizations only include those with whom you have established embassies. It is only necessary to establish an embassy once with any civilization.
        Steal Technology: Your Diplomat steals one technology advance from the other civilization. This can only be done once per city and your Diplomat disappears in the process (his cover is blown). If you have already stolen from this city, the Diplomat loses its turn.
        Industrial Sabotage: Your Diplomat destroys either the item currently under production by the city or one of the city's improvements. You cannot control what is destroyed. The Diplomat is lost in the effort. Destroying a critical improvement may throw the city into unrest (Temple, Cathedral), weaken its defenses (City Walls), or cut its production (Factory). Diplomats never destroy Wonders of the World.
        Incite a Revolt: Your Diplomat contacts dissidents within a city and for a suitable payment the city revolts and joins your civilization. The payment to revolt depends on the size of the city and its proximity to the civilization's capital. Also, a city in civil disorder revolts for less. Your Diplomat is lost in a successful revolt but escapes outside the city if you refuse to pay the cost. The revolt also fails and your Diplomat survives if you don't have enough cash. Enemy capitals do no revolt.
        Meet With King: Your Diplomat opens negotiations with the enemy ruler. This may lead to offers for trading technology or for making treaties. Your Diplomat is not lost.
        Bribing Enemy Units: You may convince an enemy unit to defect and join your civilization by moving a Diplomat into its square. A menu appears showing how much the army demands to defect. If you accept, the cash is deducted from your treasury, the army switches over, and the Diplomat survives. If you fail to make the payment, the Diplomat left on deposit is lost. When more than one enemy unit is in a square, bribery is not possible.
        The nearest friendly city becomes the home city for a newly bribed unit.


        Caravans are shipments of trade goods and materials. Over time they represent camel caravans, wagon trains, truck convoys, and cargo containers. They may be used to establish trade routes between cities or to transfer resources for the construction of Wonders of the World. They become available once you have achieved the technology of Trade.
        Trade Routes: A Caravan that enters any city of another civilization or a friendly city ten or more squares away from its home city may establish a trade route. This results in an immediate cash payment for delivery plus an increase in trade generated each turn. This increased trade means more luxuries, taxes, and science for the home city.
        Each city may have up to three functioning trade routes. If more than three are established only the best three function.
        The amount of trade generated depends partly on the size of the two cities. Bigger cities generate more trade. Trade is best with a city in another civilization. Next best are friendly cities. The farther apart the two cities are, the greater the value of trade. The value is also increased when the cities are on different continents.
        Caravans can move into any city they can reach. When at war it may be difficult to smuggle goods into an enemy city without being destroyed. Caravans may be transported overseas in ships as other units are, but cannot be landed into an enemy city directly from a ship.
        Building Wonders: A Caravan may contribute its construction cost in resources to the cost of building any Wonder of the World by moving the Caravan into the city where the Wonder is being built. When the Caravan enters, a menu offers the choice of contributing to the construction or not. If you decide to help build the Wonder, the Caravan disappears and the resources needed to build it are added to the production of the Wonder, speeding its completion.

Military Units

        The following are the military units that can be built by your civilization. There is a brief description of each unit, including any special abilities. The three numbers shown after the unit's name are its attack, defense, and movement factors. In parentheses after the name is shown the advance required before each unit can be built. In brackets is shown the number of resources it takes to build each unit.
        Armor 10-5-3 (the Automobile) [80]: a group of tanks or other armored fighting vehicles. Due to its high attack factor and speed, Armor is one of the best units for conducting ground campaigns.
        Artillery 12-2-2 (Robotics) [60]: a group of self-propelled, heavy caliber artillery pieces. Defenders are not tripled behind City Walls when attacked by Artillery because the guns fire over the walls.
        Battleship 18-12-4 (Steel) [160]: a heavily armored and gunned warship. Battleships have a visibility range of two sea squares and may conduct shore bombardments. They may not carry ground units.
        Bomber 12-1-8(16) (Advanced Flight) [120]: a group of long-range aircraft designed to carry and drop bombs. Bombers may stay airborne for one turn but must return safely to a base (a friendly city or Carrier) by the end of the second turn. They have a visibility of two squares over any terrain. Bombers ignore City Walls in the same manner as Artillery. They may only be attacked by Fighters. Other units may not enter a square occupied by a Bomber, so they are useful for interdicting enemy movement.
        Cannon 8-1-1 (Metallurgy) [40]: a group of carriage-mounted, smooth-bore cannons. Cannons are excellent units on the attack and their arrival often opens a new round of offensive wars, especially when accompanied by Riflemen who can stack with them for defense.
        Carrier 1-12-5 (Advanced Flight) [160]: an aircraft carrier is capable of acting as a base for Bombers, Fighters, and Nuclear units. Carriers may carry up to eight air units and have a visibility of two sea squares.
        Catapult 6-1-1 (Mathematics) [40]: a group of siege weapons designed to throw rocks and other materials with great force. Useful in the defense and attack of cities, but are weak when left alone on defense.
        Cavalry 2-1-2 (Horseback Riding) [20]: a unit of mounted soldiers. Cavalry are useful as scouts and raiders because of their speed.
        Chariot 4-1-2 (the Wheel) [40]: a group of light carriages, normally mounted on two wheels and each carrying a driver and warrior. Chariots are a powerful weapon on the attack but very weak on defense. They are also useful as scouts because of their speed.
        Cruiser 6-6-6 (Combustion) [80]: a very fast and moderately powerful warship. Cruisers have a visibility of two sea squares and may conduct shore bombardment. They may not carry ground units.
        Fighter 4-2-10 (Flight) [60]: a squadron of fighter aircraft. Fighters are useful as scouts and for attacking enemy Bombers. Fighters must return to a friendly base by the end of each turn.
        Frigate 2-2-3 (Magnetism) [40]: a fast sailing warship armed with a substantial number of guns. Frigates may carry up to four ground units.
        Ironclad 4-4-4 (Steam Engine) [60]: a fast, steam-powered ship armored with iron plating. Ironclads may not carry other units. Ironclads are most useful for attacking enemy ships and less so for conducting shore bombardments.
        Knights 4-2-2 (Chivalry) [40]: a group of armored warriors mounted on large powerful horses. Knights are often a useful combination of speed, defensive strength, and offensive strength.
        Legion 3-1-1 (Iron Working) [20]: a well-trained force of infantry armed with shields, short swords, and throwing spears. Legions are good offensive units that are relatively inexpensive.
        Mechanized Infantry 6-6-3 (Labor Union) [50]: a group of modern infantry mounted on armored vehicles like the Bradley. Mechanized Infantry is the best defensive ground unit in the game, useful for defending cities or other important points. It also has a good attack factor and excellent speed.
        Militia 1-1-1 (-) [10]: a band of citizens armed with crude weapons, mostly tools and farm implements. Militia are normally the only military unit that you can build when starting a civilization and are only a stopgap until better units become available.
        Musketeers 2-3-1 (Gunpowder) [30]: a company of infantry armed with muskets. Due to their higher defense factor, Musketeers are useful for replacing Phalanxes in positions that need to be defended.
        Nuclear 99-0-16 (Rocketry & Nuclear Fission) [160]: a missile weapon armed with a nuclear warhead. A Nuclear unit can only be built after the Manhattan project has been built somewhere in the world. A Nuclear unit may move between cities and Carriers. It is lost if it does not end its turn in a city or on a Carrier, and does not attack. It explodes when it attacks an enemy unit or city. A nuclear attack destroys all military units in the target square and adjacent squares, regardless of who they belong to. Nuclear attacks may also destroy city populations and cause pollution.
        Phalanx 1-2-1 (Bronze Working) [20]: a company of infantry armed with long pikes and very strong on the defensive. Phalanxes are very good food defending cities and other important points early on. No other type of unit is as cost effective for defense until Musketeers become available.
        Riflemen 3-5-1 (Conscription) [30]: a company of infantry armed with rifles. Riflemen are excellent defenders of cities and other points, and useful for replacing Phalanxes and Musketeers.
        Sail 1-1-3 (Navigation) [40]: a small ship powered by sails and lightly armed. Sailing Ships may carry up to three other units by naval transport. They are very useful for exploring the oceans because they are not restricted to staying near the coasts.
        Submarine 8-2-3 (Mass Production) [50]: a warship designed to attack from underwater by firing torpedoes at enemy ships on the surface. Submarines have a visibility of two sea squares and can only be spotted by enemy ships when adjacent. They may not carry ground units or conduct shore bombardment.
        Transport 1-0-3 (Map Making) [40]: a small ocean-going ship powered by oars. Triremes are lost at sea approximately half of the time when they are not adjacent to land at the end of a turn. They are normally the first ship that becomes available, and are thus very useful for exploring the sea and transporting Diplomats, Caravans, and other units to nearby continents.


        Barbarians are small tribes of raiders that are not part of any opposing civilization. (For the IBM version, they are always red units.) You may encounter them periodically as your civilization begins to expand and grow. They may invade from the sea or arise suddenly in unsettled parts of any continent. Barbarians may attempt to capture or destroy your cities, and pillage your fields and mines.
        Because barbarians may appear along any coast or in any unsettled area, it is important to defend cities. It way also be useful to screen your cities from unsettled areas so that barbarians that appear may be intercepted before they reach your cities.
        Most barbarian tribes are accompanied by a leader who may be ransomed if captured. Barbarian leaders look like Diplomats.
        Sea Raiders: Barbarians that invade from the sea are looking for a place to settle. They search for cities and attempt to capture them. They do not pillage mines and irrigation because of their interest in making a permanent settlement. If they capture a city, they take it over and begin producing more units to make new assaults. Sea raiders can be fought on land or engaged at sea in their ships.
        Land Barbarians: These raiders are interested only in loot, not permanent settlements. This makes them very harmful as they pillage any mines or irrigation they encounter. If they capture one of your cities, they utterly destroy it. For these reasons, land barbarians are best engaged as far from your cities as possible.
        Land barbarians arise in areas that are not within the radius of a city. As time passes they appear at even farther distances from civilization. Thus, expanding your cities over a continent eventually removes the threat of barbarians appearing because the entire area has become more or less civilized by the presence of your cities.
        Ransoming Barbarian Leaders: If a barbarian leader is alone in a square and you attack him and win, he is captured and immediately ransomed for 100 coins. The money is added to your treasury. When barbarian units are attacked and destroyed, leader units stacked with them are destroyed also. Barbarian leaders who have lost their armies attempt to escape and disappear if not captured in a few turns.

        To assist in the management of your civilization there is a system of government. There are six types of government possible but the ones available to you at any moment depend on the technology that your civilization has achieved. One type of government, Anarchy, only occurs under a special circumstance.
        When beginning a new game your civilization is automatically governed by Despotism. The additional types become available when the specific civilization advance bearing their name is made. (An exception is the Pyramids Wonder of the World.)
        The different types of government each have their own unique effects. Some allow greater personal and economic freedom resulting in fast growing trade, science, and economies, while others are better suited to building and employing large armies.
        Governments are changed by revolutions.


        The 6 governments available for a civilization are:
                The Republic
        Despotism: You rule by absolute power. The people just have enough to live with it because your will is enforced by the army. Due to the minimal amount of economic and personal freedom, production is at a minimum, But your total control makes conducting war relatively easy.
        Military units do not require resource support until the number of units making this their home city (shown in the home city roster) exceeds the number of people in the city. Each home military unit in excess of the number of people in the city requires one unit of resources for industrial support. Diplomats and Caravans do not require support.
        In addition, any map square that produces three or more food, resources, or trade has this production reduced by one. For example, a mine normally producing three resources produces only two under Despotism.
        Settlers require one food for support.
        Anarchy: You have temporarily lost control of government. Cities continue to operate on their own but some important operations of your civilization come to a halt until control is restored. You are able to continue controlling the movements of your units.
        Anarchy has the same effect as Despotism with several exceptions- no tax revenue is collected, no maintenance is charged for city improvements, and no scientific research is done while Anarchy continues. Anarchy only occurs during revolutions.
        Monarchy: Your rule is less absolute, and more with the acceptance of the people, especially an aristocracy of upper class citizens. The aristocratic classes at least have a certain amount of economic freedom and this results in the potential for greater production of resources, food, and trade. However, the upper classes deduct a share of your civilization's production as maintenance for military units and luxuries in the larger cities.
        Under a Monarchy, there is no reduction of production in squares that produce three or more units of food, resources, or trade. Irrigation of Grasslands and Rivers, plus mining of Hills can now pay off with increased production. All military units must be supported by one unit of resources. Settlers require two food for support.
        Communism: You are the head of the communistic government, and rule with the support of the controlling party. Although this form of government allows more production than despotism, the orthodoxy of the party restricts personal and economic freedom, limiting trade. However, corruption is kept to a minimum by the action of the local party apparatus.
        Communism has the same effect as Monarchy except that corruption is flat. Instead of increasing the farther a city is located from the Palace, all of your cities suffer the same rate of corruption.
        The Republic: You rule over the assembly of city-states formed from the cities that your civilization has established. Each city is an autonomous state, yet also is part of the republic that you rule at their request. They have a great deal of personal and economic freedom, and this results in greatly increased trade. Your diplomacy is reviewed by the Senate and they can override your decisions.
        Grasslands, Rivers, and Hills are as productive as they are under a Monarchy. Also, an additional trade unit is generated wherever at least one trade unit already exists. Military units each require one resource for industrial support. Settlers require two food. Each military unit not in its home city makes one citizen (one city population point) unhappy.
        In addition, the Senate of your government accepts any peace offer made by another civilization, overriding even a desire for war by you.
        Democracy: You rule as the elected executive of a democracy. The people feel that you rule because they want you to. The degree of freedom allowed under this government results in maximum opportunity for economic production and trade. However, the people also have a very strong voice in determining how much economic production is devoted to improving the standard of living. As in a Republic, some diplomatic decisions are subject to review by your Senate.
        Democracy is very similar to The Republic. One difference is that under Democracy there is no corruption. Also, if one or more of your cities are in civil disorder for two turns, there is a chance each turn thereafter that a revolution may occur. Each military unit not in its home city makes two citizens unhappy.


        Governments are changed through a process of revolution. This normally occurs at your command because you wish to change to a type of government more suitable to your plans. You may wish to change your civilization's government type to any for which you have made the correct advance.
        To cause a revolution, pull down the game menu and choose the option "Revolution." After a few turns of Anarchy, a menu appears that lists the government options available to your civilization. The new government goes into effect immediately after you make your choice.
        If your civilization possesses the Pyramids, a Wonder of the World, you may change governments without passing through Anarchy. This ability is lost after the Pyramids become obsolete.

        You always have a staff of advisors available who can provide information concerning the affairs of your civilization. By consulting with these advisors you can make informed decisions about the management of your cities and relations with other civilizations. The reports of these advisors can be obtained from the Advisors menu found on the menu bar at the map display.
        In addition, there are a number of other reports that can be consulted. These are available from the World menu on the menu bar.
        The following advisors and world reports can be consulted:
                City Status
                Military Advisor
                Intelligence Advisor
                Attitude Advisor
                Trade Advisor
                Science Advisor
        World Reports:
                Wonders of the World
                Top 5 Cities
                Civilization Score
                World Map
        City Status: This report lists the cities in your civilization and shows what they are producing. For each city you can read the population size, the amount of food, resources, and trade generated, what item is currently being produced, and how near it is to being completed.
        It is useful to consult this advisor at the beginning of your turn to refresh your memory about what you are producing and how close it is to completion. You can see at a glance whether some critical military unit or Wonder of the World is nearly completed.
        Military Advisor: The first military report shows how many units of each type your civilization has in existence and is producing.
        Clear the screen to see the second part of the report (for the IBM, press Return, the Spacebar, or any mouse button). This part of the report shows the casualties that you have taken and inflicted in combat with other civilizations. The casualties are shown by type and civilization. Civilizations are differentiated by their color. For example, if one of your rivals is the Aztecs, colored yellow, and there is a yellow "1" in the Ironclad row, this indicates that you have destroyed one Aztec Ironclad. Your casualties are shown in the first column in the left side.
        Intelligence Advisor: This report is a summary of information gathered by your embassies. For each civilization with whom you have established diplomatic relations, this report presents accurate data on the name of their capital, their type of government, the size of their treasury, and their diplomatic status with other civilizations. No information appears for civilizations with whom you have not established an embassy.
        You can learn here which civilizations are at war and which are at peace, and with whom. You may find it useful to consult this report before attacking another civilization. For example, if two of your neighbors are at war, you may consider yourself passing the opportunity to attack one of them yourself. If you do attack, they may make peace with each other and both attack you. By leaving them at war, you are free to concentrate on your own progress while they wear each other down.
        A second page of information may be called up by pressing the Info button. (Click on the button with either mouse button on the IBM.) This page reports some additional information regarding the apparent goals of the civilization's leader and their most recent technological advances.
        Attitude Advisor: This advisor reports the relative happiness of your citizens. From his survey you can see at a glance the number of happy, content, and unhappy citizens in each of your cities. This information can be very useful after changing your luxury rate or type of government because those changes can have a significant effect on the happiness of your citizens. By reviewing this survey you can quickly see where you may have to make adjustments in city management to avoid disorder.
        For each of your cities, you see the current population and icons of any city improvements that help increase the happiness of the people. At the bottom of the page are totals for the size of the population and percentages of the total that are happy, content, and unhappy.
        By examining the roster of improvements for each city, you may see where a city is missing a helpful improvement.
        Trade Advisor: Your trade advisor reports for each of your cities how much of its trade is directed toward bringing in luxuries, tax revenue, and new ideas (scientific research). The amount of luxuries, taxes, and science a city is producing is shown to the right of its name. Below the list of cities is a total for tax collections per turn.
        On the right side of the report is a list of city improvements that exist throughout your civilization. Only those improvements that cost money for maintenance are listed. The report shows how many of each improvement exist and the cost of maintaining them. At the bottom of this list is the total of your improvement maintenance costs for this turn.
        By comparing the tax revenue number with the maintenance cost number, you can see whether the treasury of your civilization is increasing each turn, shrinking, or remaining the same. If your treasury is shrinking, this may be a good time to increase taxes or adjust individual cities to produce higher revenue. In an emergency, you may wish to sell an improvement to raise cash.
        The final item in the report is labeled "Discoveries" and shows the number of turns needed for your scientists to acquire the technology advance that you have directed them to seek. The more scientific research done by your cities, the fewer turns required. Note that as technology increases, it takes more and more research to make the next breakthrough.
        Science Advisor: Your science advisor keeps track of the technologies that your civilization has already achieved and the progress of your scientists towards their next advance. (In the IBM version, technology that your civilization was first to learn is shown in white.) A chart shows progress towards the next advance. The light bulbs indicate how much research has been done. When the box if full of light bulbs, the advance being researched is achieved.
        It is possible to continue making advances beyond the basic list that defines civilization up to the end of the 20th century. These continuing advances are called Futuristic Advances and each one you acquire adds 5 points to your civilization score.
        Wonders of the World: Your geographers maintain a listing of the location of the Wonders of the World. When they hear of the construction of a new one they add it to the list. By the end of your civilization's history, there may be as many as 21 Wonders: 7 ancient, 7 medieval, and 7 modern. Knowing where they are may be useful because capturing the city where a Wonder is located adds to the glory of your civilization.
        The geographer's list shows the Wonder's icon, its name, the city in which it is located, and the civilization that built it. Clear the page of ancient Wonders to see the medieval Wonders, and clear it again to see the modern Wonders. (On the IBM clear the page by pressing the Return key or either mouse button.) Note that only existing Wonders appear on the list.
        King's Advisors: The advisors that appear behind rival kings are intended to indicate the government of the enemy civilization and its relative size. A king with four advisors indicates that his civilization is one of the largest in the world. A king with only one advisor indicates a very small civilization. The dress of the advisors indicates the civilization's type of government as follows. A government in Anarchy is represented by the advisors of Despotism.
        Mongols - Ancient Despotism
        Egyptians - Ancient Monarchy
        Greeks - Ancient Republic/Democracy
        Americans - Modern Republic/Democracy
        Hoodlums - Modern Despotism
        English - Modern Monarchy
        Soviets - Communism
        Top Five Cities: This report graphically shows the five highest rated cities in the world. The five cities are named and their parent civilizations are also listed. Below the names are the population rosters of the cities and the icons of any Wonders that have been built there. All cities in the world are rated and the five with the highest scores are put on the list. Cities score points as follows:
                2 points: For each happy citizen
                1 point: For each content citizen
                10 points: For each Wonder of the World built there
        Note that cities you have never discovered can be revealed to you in this list. The magnificence of these cities has passed by word of mouth to the corners of the world. Your geographers and other advisors constantly sift the rumors of travelers and traders for information regarding other civilizations. Even though some civilizations are not known to you, the splendor of their cities has reached the ears of your advisors.
        Civilization Score: This is a relative measure of how your civilization is doing. It is also totaled one last time when the game ends to give you a final score for the game to see how you stand. Your ultimate goal is to score over 1,000. Points are scored for the following conditions.
                2 points: For each happy citizen
                1 point: For each content citizen
                20 points: For each Wonder of the World that you possess
                3 points: For each turn of World peace (no wars)
                5 points: For each Futuristic advance
                -10 points: For each map square currently polluted
        At the bottom of the report is a bar graph indicating how far you have advanced towards a civilization score of 1,000.
        World Map: Also the work of your geography department, this is a map if the entire known world. Parts of the world that you have not discovered cannot be seen. In addition, this map is centered horizontally on your capital. Thus you cannot tell exactly where you are located relative to the north and south polar boundaries until you discover them.
        Spaceships: When you contact your space advisors, they can report the progress of any spaceship under construction. Select from the menu the civilization whose spaceship you wish to examine. Your advisors present a picture of the construction accomplished to date and their assessment of what it can carry, its estimated flight time, and its success probability.
        The space race begins once the Apollo Program Wonder of the World has been constructed. Thereafter any civilization that has the required technologies may begin building parts of a spaceship.
        Once the space race begins, it is important to maintain watch on the spaceships of your rivals. You need to assess when they are likely to launch so you can plan the size of your own ship and its launch date. If you conclude that your ship construction is too far behind to catch up, it may be necessary to mount a military campaign to capture the enemy capital. Capturing the enemy capital cancels the enemy spaceship under construction.
        Demographics: Your advisors keep track of demographic information regarding your civilization in comparison to others in the world. This information is available in this report. It details your civilization's status in a number of areas and where it ranks in the world. Examining this report may offer clues about which civilizations are your biggest threats.

        The Civilopedia is an on-line encyclopedia of Civilization. It includes reference information on over 150 items of significance in the game. For most items there is a two page story. The first page is a description of the item and its historical importance, the second page explains the significance of the item in the game.
        The Civilopedia can quickly be consulted from the map display. Pull down the Civilopedia menu and select the part that you wish to consult:
        Complete: all listings (takes several pages)
        Civilization Advances: the 70+ technologies; these are also shown in alphabetical order in sidebars on the manual pages and in the Civilization Advances Chart.
        City Improvements: the structures you can build in a city to improve its working, including the Wonders of the World.
        Military Units: the units that can be built, including Diplomats and Caravans.
        Terrain Types: the various map square terrains.
        Miscellaneous: government types, terrain improvements, and other game concepts not covered elsewhere.
        After you have selected a section of the Civilopedia, a list of the entries in that section opens. Choose the item you wish to learn about. (On the IBM, click the one you wish with the LMB or use the keypad to move the highlight and press the Return key to select.) This opens a page of the Civilopedia. After reading this page, clear it to read the next page if one exists. (On the IBM press either the Return key, Spacebar, or either mouse button.)
        When you have finished consulting the Civilopedia, close is using the Exit button in the top right corner. (On the IBM, click on the Exit button with either mouse button.)

        One cost of heedless industrial growth is a gradual polluting and poisoning of the environment. Of the many dangers posed by pollution, the greatest may be global warming. An unchecked rise in the planet's atmospheric temperature threatens geographic changes including melting polar ice caps, rising sea levels, and parched farmlands. As you steer your civilization into the industrial age, you must manage your cities to minimize pollution and prevent global warming.
        Different kinds of poisoning may occur when nuclear weapons are used or a nuclear reactor melts down.

Industrial Pollution

        Every game turn there is a probability of pollution occurring within the economic radius of each of your cities. The probability of pollution occurring depends on two factors: resources and population. The most important factor is the number of resources the city generates. The more that are generated, the higher the probability. Below a certain level, there is no chance of pollution.
        The city's population has no effect on pollution until you acquire the advance of the Automobile. Thereafter, the population may become a significant factor in the probability of pollution occurring.
        When there is a probability of pollution occurring at a city, smokestacks begin appearing on the city display. The number of stacks indicates the probability. For example, a city generating a large number of resources each turn (say 20) and inhabited by a large population, may show five smokestacks in its city display. This indicates that the probability of a new square becoming polluted is 5% this turn.


        Pollution can be cleaned up by Settler units. Move the Settler onto the polluted square and press the Pollution key (the P key for the IBM). The Settler is marked with a "P" to note that it has been ordered to clean up pollution.
        After four turns of work, the pollution disappears. Adding more Settlers to a polluted square does not speed the cleanup.


        Pollution reduces the production of food, industry, and trade in any map square where it appears. Production is halved and then rounded up. For example, a square that produced 4 food, 1 industry, and 2 trade before pollution produces only 2 food, 1 industry, and 1 trade after. When cleaned up, the map square returns to pre-pollution levels of production.

Monitoring Pollution

        Your environmental advisors immediately inform you when any map area becomes polluted. The area on the map is marked with smudges (black in the IBM version) to indicate pollution.
        The extent of pollution throughout your civilization can be monitored by watching the pollution indicator, a small sun in the date window of the map display. The color of the sun indicates the risk of global warming. The colors in the IBM version range from dark red, to light red, to yellow, to white. Dark red indicates a low risk and white indicates a very high risk.
        The colors of the sun depend on the number of squares currently polluted and a lag of time. The more squares polluted, the higher the risk. The lag reflects the time required for the pollution to take effect.

Global Warming

        Effects: Global warming causes geographic changes throughout the world. Deserts, Plains, and Grasslands on coasts may become Swamps, and coastal Forests may become Jungles. Plains, Grasslands, and Forests in the interior may become Deserts. The result is much lower food, industry, and trade for your civilization.
        Your environmental advisors report immediately if global warming has occurred. The effect is always bad, but in the case of flooded coastal areas you may improve Jungles and Swamps over time.
        Causes: Global warming may occur if at least nine map squares, anywhere in the world, are currently polluted. If they are left unattended for too long, environmental damage occurs.
        Once an environmental disaster has occurred, the cycle starts over again. The planet has achieved equilibrium at the new higher temperatures. If pollution continues or increases once more to high levels, another bout of environmental problems may occur. This cycle may repeat endlessly if pollution is not controlled.

Nuclear Pollution

        Pollution may also be caused by nuclear weapons or the meltdown a nuclear power plant. Pollution caused by either of these events has the same effect as industrial pollution.
        Nuclear Weapons: When a nuclear unit is used in an attack, an additional effect of the attack is the pollution of a number of map squares around the impact square. Remember this when you are tempted to use nuclear weapons. You may create pollution you cannot readily reach with Settlers to clean up, significantly raising the risk of global warming.
        Nuclear Meltdown: If a nuclear Power Plant melts down, half of the city's population is destroyed and a random number of squares near the city become polluted.
        there is risk of meltdown when a city that has a Nuclear Power Plant goes into civil disorder. The civilian unrest may result in safety procedures becoming so lax that a catastrophic accident occurs. If you build Nuclear Power Plants in any of your cities, take special care not to allow those cities to go into disorder.
        When your civilization achieves the technology of Fusion Power, the risk of meltdown disappears. Your Nuclear Plants automatically convert to the technology of fusion power, which is free of the risk of meltdown.

        Diplomacy is conducted by negotiations between you and a ruler of a rival civilization. Negotiations may occur when a rival sends an envoy to talk or may result from overtures of your own. Diplomacy is conducted face-to-face with one rival ruler at a time and can lead to exchanges of technology, offers of peace, international extortion, or declarations of war.
        A rival may contact you when units from each of your civilizations are adjacent to each other. A rival envoy may also arrive at any time. You may start negotiations by sending a Diplomat into a rival city and selecting the option "Meet With the King."
        The tone and result of any negotiations are greatly influenced by the mood of your rival. The opposing leader may be antagonistic, supplicating, or somewhere in between. This mood depends upon the leader's personality and how your two civilizations compare to each other and the rest of the world. You may be able to pick up cues on a rival's mood from facial expressions or background music.
        A rival leader's personality may be aggressive, friendly, or neutral. Aggressive leaders are more likely to lean toward war or demand high payments for peace. Friendly leaders are more likely to offer peace and may only be bluffing when asking for payment. If you have broken previous peace agreements with this civilization, that is remembered and also influences the degree of antagonism.
        If you are the largest, most powerful, and richest civilization in the world, all rivals are likely to be very jealous or antagonistic. However, if the opponent is puny in comparison, the natural tendency toward being belligerent may be overridden. A civilization threatened with extinction is more interested in survival.
        All negotiations end with either an agreement of peace between your two civilizations or a declaration of war. Even the most antagonistic rival may concede peace for a suitable payment of cash or technology. This may purchase peace only temporarily, however.
        Establishing embassies with other civilizations can be very useful in preparation for negotiations. Your Intelligence Advisor collects information from all your enemies and from him you can learn important facts about your opponents, including their size and the personality of their leader. This information is not available for civilizations with which you have not established an embassy.
        ,b>Trading Technology: Civilizations that are not extremely antagonistic may offer to trade technology. They may begin by offering one that you don't possess. They may actually have several you lack. If you agree, a menu of technologies they can trade appears. Select the one that you want and then they take one from you. You have no choice regarding what they take and cannot veto the trade. If after trading another exchange is possible, more trading may take place.
        Buying Peace: A rival may demand a cash payment or a civilization advance during negotiation. If you meet this demand, the rival almost certainly agrees to peace. If you reject the demand, an antagonistic rival generally declares war. The demand of a more peaceful or threatened rival may only be a bluff, and peace may be offered anyway after demands are rejected. In some cases, a rival offers a reward for your making peace or declaring war on another civilization.
        Post-Treaty Negotiations: Once you agree to a peace treaty you have an opportunity for further negotiations. A menu opens offering three choices: a declaration of harmony, a military proposal, or a demand for tribute. The declaration of harmony has no real effect. A military proposal is a suggestion by you for your new friends to attack a third party. This generally costs you a cash payment which you can pay or turn down. The third option is a demand for tribute to cement the new treaty you have signed. If your opponent is weak or in awe of your power, he may pay. Alternatively, he may refuse to pay, or even go so far as to declare war on you.


        Peace between your civilization and another can only result from diplomacy. If you and your rival agree, then a state of peace can occur. Choosing peace is voluntary unless your government is a Republic or Democracy. In those cases the Senate of the government overrules any decision for war and accepts peace.
        Peace agreements can normally be broken at any time by either party, but so long as it holds, both parties must adhere to the following rules: units of the other civilization, even Diplomats, may not be attacked; no units except Diplomats and Caravans may enter squares that have been improved by the other party within the radius of a city (irrigated, mined, or penetrated by roads); squares that the other party has under development may not be pillaged; and technology may not be stolen from the other party. Any of these events ends the peace and triggers war. You are warned that you are about to break a peace and have a chance to check your action.
        If your government is a Republic or Democracy, you may not voluntarily violate a peace agreement. The Senate forbids any action that starts war. If you consider war necessary, you must have a Revolution to overthrow the government and put in one more receptive to your wishes. Alternatively, you may wait for your opponent to break the peace himself or declare war on you.
        When you are at peace it is much easier for trade Caravans to reach the cities of the other party and establish trade routes. If the entire world is at peace, your civilization score is increased. The major benefit of peace is that you are not at war. During war, all of the proscribed activities are possible and can cause great damage and waste of resources.

        The environmental pressures of growing populations in the modern world are forcing humans to look into space for resources and living room. The question is not whether humans are to travel to the stars, but when. The final act of stewardship you can perform for your civilization is to insure that they lead this exodus.
        As noted earlier, the history of your civilization ends when either you or one of your rivals reaches a nearby star system with colonists. If your spaceship is the first to arrive, you receive a bonus to your civilization score in recognition of this final accomplishment. Regardless of how many colonists your spaceship is carrying, or how fast it is, if a rival makes planetfall first, you receive no bonus.
        The construction of spaceships may not begin until one civilization has built the Apollo Program Wonder. Thereafter, the race is on. Any civilization that has the necessary technology may start building the parts of a spaceship.
        Each civilization, including yours, may build only one spaceship at a time. Once it is launched, another one cannot be built and sent off. Ships that have been launched may not be recalled or turned around. Spaceships are destroyed if the owning civilization's capital is captured. In this case, a new ship may be constructed.


        The purpose of your spaceship is to carry as many colonists as possible to another star system. To have any chance of success it must provide at least a minimum of the following: living space for colonists, food sources, energy sources, propulsion power, and fuel for the engines. The better prepared the spaceship, the higher the number of colonists that arrive safely and the faster the voyage.
        Your goal is to build a spaceship that can hold as many colonists as possible, yet travel at a reasonable speed and with a reasonable probability of success. As construction of your ship proceeds, keep an eye on its characteristics, displayed to the right of the spaceship window. All spaceships have the same characteristics: population, food, energy, mass, fuel, flight time, and probability of success.
        Once you have built a spaceship that meets the minimum requirements for carrying colonists, you may launch or proceed with further construction to increase the capacity of the ship.
        Population: The number of people the spaceship is outfitted to carry. The more people it carries to the new planet, the higher your bonus.
        Support: The percentage of the people that the ship is prepared to carry that can currently be supported. People that are not provided with life support cannot be expected to survive the voyage.
        Energy: The percentage of the energy required by the habitation and life support modules that is currently being provided. If sufficient energy is not provided for life support and habitation, the probability of success will be very low.
        Mass: All of the components, modules, and structures add to the mass of your spaceship. The greater the mass, the more power required from propulsion parts to move it.
        Fuel: The percentage of the fuel your propulsion units require that is currently aboard. If insufficient fuel is provided, the propulsion components aboard cannot work to their maximum power and the best possible speed cannot be attained.
        Flight Time: A calculation of the number of years required for your spaceship to reach the nearest star based on the ship's mass and engine power. Adding more engines and fuel reduces flight time.
        Probability of Success: The approximate percentage of the people that can be carried that are expected to survive the voyage, based on the amount of food and energy provided, plus the flight time. The faster the flight, the higher the expected survival rate.
        Space Ship Launching: To send your spaceship on its voyage, press the launch key (the L key on the IBM) or the Launch button, found at the bottom right of the display.


        Your spaceship is constructed of parts. Each part is built like any other improvement, except that when a part is completed, it is automatically added to your ship. The parts of the spaceship come in three types: components, modules, and structures. Each type is available for construction when you have achieved a specific technology advance.
        All modules and components must be connected to a sufficient structure. If a module or component is not connected, it is marked (outlined in red on the IBM) to signal the part is not working. Once sufficient structural parts have been added, the outline disappears.


        To build spaceship components you must have achieved the technology of Plastics. You can then build components at a cost of 160 resources. There are two kinds of components, propulsion and fuel. When a component has been completed, you choose which type gas been built.
        Propulsion Components: These are the engines that provide the power for space flight. The more engines you add, the faster the ship travels, the sooner it reaches its destination, and the higher the probability of success of the mission.
        Fuel Components: These provide fuel for the propulsion units. In order for the propulsion units to perform their maximum, one fuel component must be provided for each propulsion component.


        Spaceship modules require the technology of Robotics and cost 320 resources each to build. They exist in three types: habitation, life support, and solar panels. When a module is completed, you choose which type to add to your ship.
        Habitation Module: Each habitation module provides living space, community services, and recreational activities for ten thousand colonists.
        Life Support Module: Each life support module provides the food and other requirements for the ten thousand colonists carried in one habitation module. People carried in a habitation module that doesn't receive life support have a very low probability of surviving.
        Solar Panel Module: Each solar panel module provides enough energy to power two of the other types of module. Modules that don't receive power cannot function properly.


        Spaceship structures require the technology of Space Flight and cost 80 resources to build. You must build sufficient structure parts to connect the components and modules together. Parts that are not connected do not work and provide no benefit to the ship.

        The economic and industrial centers of your civilization are its cities. They are the residence of the population, the source of tax dollars, the home of your scientists, and the sites of your industrial production. Each city organizes the development of the area surrounding it, converting the nearby agricultural land, natural resources, and potential trade into food, industrial production, technology, and cash.
        One measure of the success of your civilization is the number of cities it encompasses and the size of each. Larger cities collect more taxes, conduct more technology research, and produce new items faster. Small civilizations, both in numbers of cities and the sizes of each, risk being overrun by larger and more powerful neighbors. Falling too far behind in the arms race, both in quality and quantity, may result in an early exit from history.
        The management of your civilization involves the founding of cities, their management, and their protection. New cities can be built from scratch or captured from rivals. Managing a city requires maintaining a balance of food, industry, taxes, luxuries, and improvements that keeps the citizens content and productive.
        Rival civilizations are a constant threat to the security of your cities. After taking steps to protect them, consider conquering cities of your rivals. This reduces the threat they pose and is often an inexpensive way to expand.

New Cities

        New cities can be acquired in three ways. They can be started from scratch, a minor tribe discovered by your armies may elect to join you as a new city, or your armies can conquer the cities of your neighbors.
        Founding New Cities: When a Settler unit is on a map square where you wish to build a new city, press the Build key (the B key on the IBM). You can accept a name your advisors propose for the new city or type in a name you prefer. Enter the name when you are satisfied. (Press the Return key on the IBM). The city display then opens so that production and economic development can be arranged as desired. When the display is closed, the new city is on the map and the Settler unit has disappeared, having become the first citizens of the city.
        Minor Tribes: As your armies explore the world they may encounter minor tribes. Occasionally a minor tribe may be sufficiently awed by your emissaries to immediately become part of your civilization. In this case, the minor tribe forms a new city of your civilization.
        Capturing Cities: Cities of other civilizations are normally defended. If the defenders can be destroyed, a friendly army may move into the city and capture it. A captured city is thereafter managed and controlled by you in the same manner as any other city. Capturing an enemy city may also result in the discovery of a new technology advance and plundered cash.
        Occupying an enemy city may destroy some improvements the city has built, and it eliminates one point of population. Therefore, a city that has only one point of population remaining is destroyed instead of captured.

Placing New Cities

        When building a new city, plan carefully where it is placed. The map square in which it is built and the squares surrounding it determine how valuable the city can become. Factors to be considered include the economic value of the square the city is placed in, the economic potential within the city's radius, the proximity of other cities, and the strategic value of the location. Ideally, locate cities in areas that offer a combination of food for population growth, resources for production, and trade. Where possible, take advantage of the presence of special resource squares.
        The City Square: The terrain the city occupies is especially important because it is always under development. You cannot take workers off of this square when adjusting development on the city map (see City Map). If this area is not useful. especially for producing food, then population growth in a new city is handicapped. For this reason, new cities are generally built in Plains, Grasslands, or Rivers. These provide the best food production and, thus, faster population growth.
        The City Radius: The potential area of development extends out from a city two squares on the map in every direction except diagonally. If the city grows large enough, its population can bring all of this area into development. When planning a new city, consider this radius and the long-term benefits of any potential site.
        To grow, the city must encompass sufficient food-growing areas. Any city that can grow has value, but your most important cities are those that also have resources available. These cities can quickly build and support military units and Wonders. Hills and Forests are important sources of resources, as are squares containing special resources symbols for game, horses, coal, and oil.
        The importance of trade in generating taxes and technology makes River squares especially good sites for cities when just beginning. Without Rivers, you must quickly build roads to generate trade.
        Landscaping: When surveying sites for a new city, keep in mind the potential for some squares to be improved. Hills and Mountains can be mined and then produce increased resources. Plains, Rivers, and Grasslands can be irrigated and then produce more food. Swamps and Jungles can be cleared into Grasslands or converted to Forests. Forests may be cleared into Plains. Plains and Grasslands may be turned into Forests if you need resources. An area of Jungles and Swamps looks barren at first, but has the potential to be a very rich city site.
        Plains, Grasslands, and Deserts produce trade once penetrated by Roads, and all land squares improve in production when Railroads arrive.
        Proximity of Cities: Another consideration when planning new cities is the current or potential location of other cities. Minimize the economic radius overlap of your cities as much as possible. Since a map area may only be used by one city, too much overlap restricts the potential growth of one or both cities. When just beginning, explore nearby lands as soon as possible to begin planning the placement of future cities to best take advantage of the terrain. A few large and powerful cities are more useful than several smaller, weaker ones.
        Strategic Value: The strategic value of a city's site is a final consideration. Because the underlying terrain can increase the defender's strength when under attack, in some circumstances the defensive value of terrain may be more important than economic value. But good defensive terrain is generally poor for food production and inhibits the early growth of a city.
        However, defending a city is generally easier than defending normal terrain. In a city you can build the City Walls improvement which triples the strength of defenders. Also, in cities only one army at a time is destroyed in combat. Outside of cities, all armies stacked together are destroyed when any army in the stack is defeated. So, in certain cases where a continent bottlenecks and a rival is on the other side, the defensive value of a city site may be more critical than economic value.
        Placing at least a few cities on the coast gives you access to the ocean. This allows the launching of ship units to explore the world and transport your units overseas. With a few coastal cities, your seapower is constrained.

City Management

        There are several goals for management of a city: keeping it stable (avoiding civil disorder), keeping its population growing, maximizing a useful mix of economic development (food, resources, and trade), producing tax revenue, producing technology research, and producing useful units and improvements.
        Stability: Cities that don't maintain a favorable balance of happy people over unhappy people go into civil disorder (see below). Cities in civil disorder produce no tax revenue, no technology research, and no food surpluses, and suspend production. A nuclear reactor in a city suffering civil disorder may experience a meltdown due to lax safety controls (see Nuclear Meltdown). Keeping a city stable is a very high priority.
        Population Growth: Keeping the population growing is important because each additional person contributes something to your civilization. Each new worker brings a map square under production. Population growth increases economic power, and thus, the strength of your civilization. The size of your population is a major factor in determining your civilization score, a measure of how well you have ruled.
        Resource Development: The people of your city that work in the surrounding countryside harness the economic resources of the area. Those resources are converted by the city into more people, industrial production, money, and technology research. When managing a city, you must allocate the people so as to maximize this development, or match it up to your needs.
        There may be times when increased industrial output is preferred over population growth. There may be times when increased trade is needed. You can give orders to your advisors to shift a city's work force around to change the mix of economic development as desired.
        Tax Revenue: Most of the improvements that can be built within cities require money for maintenance. Money is also useful for speeding industrial production, bribing enemy armies, inciting revolts in enemy cities, and for negotiating peace with your neighbors. The combined tax revenues of your cities must exceed their maintenance requirements before cash can accumulate for other uses.
        Although it is not necessary for each city to produce surplus revenue, enough cities must do so to cover expenses. Some cities may not be especially suited for industrial production, but may still be good trading centers. Manage these cities to produce extra revenue.
        Technology Research: The greater the contribution of research each city makes toward new technology, the faster the new civilization advance is reached. The amount of research done in each city is a function of the science rate. This is a percentage of the city's trade devoted to bringing in new ideas and otherwise discovering technology advances. A city's research contribution can also be influenced by adjusting trade, creating Scientists, and certain improvements. Improvements that can help are the Library and University, which improve research, and several Wonders.
        Industrial Production: Each city has more or less capacity to produce new units and improvements. The most valuable cities have the greatest industrial capacity. They can quickly produce expensive military units that extend the power of your civilization. They are also the best at producing the Wonders of the World. You must regularly monitor the production of your cities to insure that most needed items are being built.
        There are four main tools available to reach and maintain these goals of city management: shifting workers around, converting some workers to Specialists, building improvements, and building Wonders of the World.
        Workers can be shifted around the city map display to adjust economic development. Specialists can be created to increase the production of luxuries, taxes, or technology.
        Within each city you can order the construction of improvements such as a Temple to make some unhappy people content, a Granary to speed population growth, or a Library to increase historic research. From either source you can also learn the construction and maintenance cost of each improvement, its purpose, and what technology is required to make it available.
        The most costly tools available are the Wonders of the World. These are magnificent improvements that bring lasting glory to your civilization in addition to some special effect. Possible Wonders are described in the manual section Wonders of the World, or in the Civilopedia. Although Wonders are built in a city like an improvement, their special effect often extends through all or part of your civilization. However, only one of each Wonder may be built in the world and your rivals may construct them first.

City Protection

        Great economic management of a city is worthless if the city is captured by rivals or barbarians. Part of the management plan must concern the city's defense. A large part of the defense is not handled locally, but on your borders and coasts. A defensive line of units, both at sea and on land, that can intercept enemies before they close with your cities can be helpful.
        Even the best defensive lines can be penetrated, so the defense of the city itself cannot be neglected. The minimum city defense is one army, preferably with a good defensive factor. Fortify any armies that you expect to defend a city (by press the F key on the IBM) because Fortified units increase their defensive strength. A second defender is often a good idea. Adding an army with a strong attack factor is also useful. This army can attack enemies that move adjacent to the city, perhaps destroying them before they test the defenders.
        The defense of the city can be substantially improved by building City Walls, an improvement that triples the defender's strength versus most attackers, but not Bombers or Artillery. This tripling takes place after the effects of veteran status is considered. Being fortified behind City Walls has no effect unless the attacking unit is a Bomber or Artillery unit. City Walls also prevent population loss when defending units are destroyed.
        When civilization advances make available new army types with better defense factors, take the first opportunity to replace old defenders with better units. Since the offensive capability of your enemies improves as they acquire new technology, your defenses must improve to keep up.
        Linking cities with Roads and Railroads can be very helpful in speeding the movement of units from one end of your empire to trouble spots elsewhere. This puts your defensive armies on "interior lines," allowing them to rapidly move to where they are needed.

City Disorder

        A city suffers civil disorder when unhappy people outnumber happy people (content people are ignored in the calculation). Cities in disorder provide no tax revenue, contribute no technology research, and suspend production of new units or improvements. When order is restored, the city returns to normal operation next turn. You can restore order several ways.
        To restore order you may pay to complete an improvement, such as a Temple, that can convert sufficient unhappy people to contentment (or content people to happiness) to restore balance.
        You may also change the luxury and tax rates to attempt to restore order. Increasing luxuries may make some content people happy.
        You may take one or more people out of the work force, making them Specialists. This increases the number of happy people. When creating Specialists, be careful not to cause shortages of food or resources that cause starvation of population or scrapping of armies.
        Under the government types Despotism, Monarchy, or Communism, it is possible to restore order to a city using martial law. Each military unit in a city makes one unhappy citizen content. Only those units possessing an attack factor of 1 or more can impose martial law. By moving enough units into a city suffering civil disorder, order may be restored.
        Under Republican or Democratic government, each military unit not in its home city creates one or more unhappy citizen. When a city is in disorder, destroying distant military units, returning them to the home city, or changing their home city, makes some unhappy people content and may restore the city to order.
        All of these methods are useful in restoring the balance of your cities or enemy cities that you have just captured.

We Love the (King) Day

        When a city becomes sufficiently happy, it may hold a celebration in honor of your rule. The people declare a "We Love the (King) Day" in thanks for the prosperity you have made possible. While the circumstances that trigger this celebratory mood continue, the city enjoys certain benefits, depending on your civilization's type of government.
        In order for the "We Love the (King) Day" celebration to occur, there must be no unhappy people in the city, at least as many happy people as content people, and the city must have a population of at least three. Specialists are considered content citizens for this calculation. For example, a city with five happy people, four content people, and no unhappy people celebrates. A city with ten happy people, three content people, and one unhappy people, does not.
        Anarchy: The celebration has no effect when the government is in Anarchy.
        Despotism: The celebrating city is operated as if the government is a Monarchy. This can increase the amount of food and resources generated when some terrains are irrigated and mined.
        Monarchy/Communism: A celebrating city currently ruled by either of these governments is operated as if the government is a Democracy instead. This increases the amount of trade generated.
        Republic/Democracy: A celebrating city currently ruled by either of these governments increases in population by one point each turn so long as sufficient food is available. This can result in dramatic growth of the city.

        The operation of each city is directed from its city display. Here you assign the population to work in the surrounding fields, mines, forests, and fishing grounds. Here also you determine what unit or other item the city is to produce. The display provides in one place critical information concerning the city's status: how much food, resources, and trade it is generating; what it is producing and how close the item is to completion; the happiness of the population; what is defending the city; and what improvements have been built.
        This display is opened from the map window. (On the IBM, click the LMB on the city's map square.) The city display is closed with the exit button. (On the IBM, click the LMB on the exit button.)
        The city display consists of the following parts: city map, city resources window, population roster, food storage box, production box, improvement roster, information window, and the home city window. Each part performs a specific function or reports information.

City Map

        This shows the map squares surrounding the city that may be developed by the city's population. The maximum number of squares that a city may put into development equals the number of people plus one, but the additional one is always the city square itself. Note that it is possible to have more population than places to put them to work.
        Depending on the type of terrain in a map square, putting people to work there may generate food (the grain symbol), resources (the shield symbol) or trade (the arrows symbol). Most squares produce a combination of several items. You may move people from one square to another as you wish to change the mix of food, resources, and trade the city generates.
        People removed from the city map are temporarily converted into Specialists (see below) in the population roster. When they are put back to work on the map, they convert back to normal people. (To remove people on the IBM, place the mouse pointer on the correct map square and click the LMB. To put them back to work, place the pointer on the city map square where you wish them to go and click the LMB again.) As people are removed, replaced, and switched around, the resources generated by the city also change.
        When the city population increases, the new people are automatically assigned an area to develop. You may wish to review the map of a city that has just increased in size to be sure the workers are placed as you wish.

City Resources Window

        This Window shows the amounts of food, resources, trade, corruption, luxuries, taxes, and scientific research generated by the city's people. These commodities are the raw materials of your civilization. They are brought into the city and there become new people, new units, city improvements, Wonders of the World, cash, and civilization advances.
        Food, resources, and trade are collected each turn from the city map squares. In some cases the amount of a commodity collected may be increased by the presence of a certain improvement in the city, or ownership of a certain Wonder. For example, a Factory improvement increases resource production by 50%. A city that produces 10 resources from its city map actually has 15 resources to spend if it has a Factory. Trade is further divided into the three commodities that trade brings in: luxuries, cash, and science (knowledge). The division of trade depends on the trade rates shown in the status report of the map display. Under certain conditions, some trade is lost as corruption.
        Food: A population point in your city requires two units of food each turn. If your city is currently producing more food than that, the surplus is shown after a break in the food line. The excess goes into the food storage box shown elsewhere on the city display and described below.
        If you are not producing enough food to feed the population, the amount of food you are short is shown as shortfall in the food line (on the IBM, this is shown by black food symbols). Each turn this shortage cannot be made up from food in storage the city's population decreases by one.
        Existing Settler units that a city has produced also require one or two food units per turn, depending on your type of government.
        Resources: The shield symbols indicate the resources of raw materials and industrial capacity of the city. Depending on the form of government of your civilization, part of your capacity may be required to maintain units that the city has built. Surplus capacity is shown to the right of a break in the industry line and is available to be used to build new units or city improvements. This surplus goes into the production box shown elsewhere on the display and described below.
        If the city's industrial capacity is not sufficient to maintain existing units for which this is the home city, the amount of resources that you are short is shown in the resource line as a shortfall (on the IBM, the symbols are black). If the resources available are not sufficient to maintain all existing units, then units not maintained are destroyed wherever they exist, beginning with the one farthest from the city.
        Diplomats and Caravans do not require maintenance under any form of government.
        The basic amount of resources generated may be increased by improving the city with a Factory, Manufacturing Plant, Power Plant, Nuclear Plant, or Hydro Plant. The Hoover Dam Wonder improves the resources for all cities on its continent.
        Trade: Trade is produced by Roads through Plains, Deserts and Grasslands, by Rivers, by Oceans/Lakes, by squares containing Gold Mines or Gems, and by Caravan trade routes. trade arrives as luxuries, taxes, and scientific research, depending on your trade rates. For example, if your luxury/tax/science rates shown on the map display are 3.3.4, 30% of your trade arrives as luxuries, 30% as tax revenue, and 40% as science. At these rates, a city generating ten trade would convert that into three diamonds of luxuries, three coins of taxes, and four light bulbs of research.
        Trade may be increased by trade routes established by Caravans, by certain types of government, by the Colossus Wonder, and when a city celebrates "We Love the (King) Day".
        Luxuries: These are shown as diamonds. For every two diamonds of luxuries produced, one content citizen becomes happy. Luxuries are most useful for making people happy, especially in very large cities that may have a large segment of unhappy people that need to be countered.
        The amount of luxuries generated may be increased quickly by creating Entertainers, a type of Specialist discussed below. Luxuries may be increased by raising the luxury rate of trade brought in. Luxuries are best increased by increasing the amount of trade the city generates. The amount of luxuries brought in by trade may be increased by a Marketplace or Bank.
        Tax Revenues: These are shown as gold coins and are used to pay maintenance costs for city improvements. Surplus taxes collected are added to the treasury and can be spent later. The amount of taxes collected from trade may be increased by Taxmen, another type of Specialist. The amount of taxes brought in by trade may be increased by a Marketplace or Bank.
        Science: The knowledge that results from science research is shown as light bulbs. Each new technology that you direct your scientists to discover requires a certain amount of research. When enough lightbulbs of research have been spent, the new advance is acquired by your civilization. The Library and University improvements plus some of the Wonders of the World increase the amount of research a city does. In addition, research may be increased by another type of specialist, Scientists.
        Corruption: Depending on your type of government and the city's distance from your palace, some trade may be lost as corruption. Corruption is marked by a modified trade symbol after a break in the trade line. (On the IBM, the trade symbol has a dark shadow.) The farther your city from the city containing your Palace (your capital) the more corruption and lost trade. Building a Courthouse improvement in the city reduces corruption.

Population Roster

        The population of your city is shown by a row of people in the population roster. Each person represents one population point. In addition to normal workers, the city may include three different types of specialist, discussed below.
        The normal people who work in city map areas are shown as either happy, content, or unhappy. You must manage your city's production and improvements so that at least a balance of happy and unhappy people is maintained. If the number of unhappy people exceeds the number of happy people (with content people being ignored in this case) your city goes into civil disorder.
        Looking at the population roster is a quick way to see how the balance of happy and unhappy citizens stands. When a city is about to increase in size, it may be useful to adjust the work force so that the city is not thrown in to disorder by the increase. You can examine the population rosters of all of your cities at one time by consulting your Attitude Advisor from the Advisor menu.


        People taken off the work force and removed from the city map become specialists. These people no longer directly contribute to the food, resources, and trade the city generates. However, they may be useful in adjusting the amount of luxuries, taxes, and science the city generates. If your city is producing sufficient food, you may be able to afford Specialists and their special abilities. Specialists require food like other people.
        There are three types of Specialists. Entertainers are musicians and other artists who provide luxuries for your city and their presence makes more people happy. Taxmen are bureaucrats who make the city government, specifically tax collection, more efficient. Scientists are researchers who increase the city's contribution toward discovering new technology.
        Entertainers: People removed from the work force immediately become Entertainers. Each Entertainer is the equivalent of two additional trade symbols added to that part of the city's trade brought in as luxuries. This additional trade is added before the effects of improvements such as Marketplaces and Banks are calculated. Creating Entertainers has the result of creating more luxuries and making more happy people.
        Taxmen: You can change an Entertainer into a Taxman. (On the IBM, click the LMB on the Entertainer in the population roster. The Entertainer converts into a Taxman.) Each Taxman has a similar effect to that of an Entertainer, except that tax revenues are increased, not luxuries. When an Entertainer is converted, the luxury benefit stops working.
        Note that increasing taxes is only helpful if the city remains out of civil disorder. Otherwise, no collection is made.
        Scientists: You can change a Taxman into a Scientist. (On the IBM, click the LMB on a Taxman and he is converted to a Scientist.) This Specialist is a researcher who increases the amount of knowledge your city is producing, just as Entertainers increase luxuries and Taxmen increase taxes. As with Taxmen, Scientists are only useful if your city is not in civil disorder.
        You can convert Taxmen back into Entertainers.

Food Storage Box

        Into this box goes any surplus food generated by your city each turn. This is food needed to feed the city's population and the Settlers that it is supporting. Food put in the storage box is stored and accumulates each turn. When the box overflows, your city's population grows by one point and a new citizen is added to the population roster. The storage box is emptied and begins to fill again next turn.
        If one of your cities is not currently producing enough food to feed its population, the people don't starve so long as food is available for use in its storage box. Each turn, any food shortage is subtracted from food in the box. If the box is empty and the city still has a food shortfall, one point of population starves and disappears.
        The Granary improvement has the effect of speeding population growth. When a city has a Granary, the storage box only half empties when it overflows and creates more people. The box empties only to the granary line. In addition, a Granary protects the city from starvation during a Famine disaster.

Production Box

        Into this box go any surplus resources generated by your city each turn. Surplus resources are those not needed to maintain existing units and are shown to the right of the break in the resource line in the city resources window. Resources accumulate in the box until it fills, thereby completing the unit or improvement being built.
        The item being built is noted by its icon, if it is a unit, or its name if it is an improvement or Wonder. The items available for building depend on the technology your civilization has achieved at the moment. The size of the production box grow or shrinks, depending on the number of resources required to build each item. You may change the item being built during any turn before it is completed. You may also speed the completion of an item by paying for a rush job.
        Change production: Use the Change button to open the menu of items that you can produce. (On the IBM, click the LMB on the button.) Then make your selection from the menu of choices that appears. The production box changes size to indicate the resource cost of your selection and the name or the icon of the new item appears at the top of the box.
        If you are producing an item that is no longer available from the menu, that production continues even after the item is completed. However, if you open the production menu while producing an obsolete item, you must make a new choice as the old one disappears.
        If you are building a Wonder and another civilization completes it before you can, you must change the production of your city. You are taken to your city's display in order to make the production change.
        Rush Jobs: You may rush completion of a partially built item by paying to complete it immediately. To rush completion, use the Buy button at the top right of the box. (On the IBM, click the LMB on the button.) A menu appears showing how much money is required to finish the object by the end of the turn. Choose whether to rush the item or not. To speed the completion of an item in this manner costs at least $2 per missing resource. If no resources have gone into an item, i.e., the production box is empty, the cost of a rush job is doubled.
        Items completed by rush jobs are available at the beginning of your next turn, so there is no advantage for rushing items that would complete next turn anyway. To judge whether an item can be completed next turn without rushing, compare the surplus resources the city is generating to the number needed to finish. For very expensive items, it may be useful to consult your city status advisor for an exact count of the remaining cost.
        Sabotage: Enemy Diplomats may slip into your cities and destroy items partially completed. All resources currently invested in an item are destroyed and production starts over. Your only protection from this is to destroy enemy Diplomats before they can enter.
        Disaster: Pirate raids also destroy the partially completed item in the production box. The only defense against them is the Barracks improvement.

Improvements Roster

        In this part of the city display is a list of the improvements and Wonders of the World that the city has built and that still exist. For each item listed there is its icon, its name and a sell button.
        Improvements and Wonders are discussed in detail in the separate manual sections Improvements, and Wonders of the World. In addition, all improvements and Wonders are listed in the Civilopedia.
        When an improvement is built, it is added to the roster.
        Improvements may be destroyed in a number of ways, and when this happens, they are removed from the roster. Improvements are also removed when sold.
        You may sell an improvement to raise cash by pressing the sell button next to its name. Wonders of the World may not be sold.

Home City Roster

        The units now on the map anywhere in the world that are supported by this city are shown here. These units are normally ones that this city has built, but it is possible to reassign units to another city. When a unit built elsewhere is assigned to another city, it is added to the second city's home city roster and removed from the roster of the first city.
        Also noted here are any resources or food required by the unit for maintenance. The amount of resource and food support units need depends on your civilization's type of government.
        Units requiring resource maintenance are marked with a resource symbol below their icon. Resources needed for maintenance are unavailable for production and are shown to the left of any break in the resource line in the city resources window. If the city does not generate enough resources to maintain all of the units in the home city roster, units left unsupported are destroyed, beginning with the unit farthest from the city.
        Settlers that require food support are marked with the number of food symbols they require.
        Under two government types, the Republic and Democracy, each supported unit not in the home city causes one or more population point to become unhappy. These units are marked with special symbols to note that they are the source of some unhappiness.

Information Window

        Within this window various types of information can be reviewed or accessed. Here you can quickly see what military units are defending the city, what trade routes the city has established, whether the city is causing pollution, a small version of the world map, or a bird's-eye view of the city.
        Across the top of the window are several buttons: Info, Happy, View, Map. Using these buttons you can call up the information you wish to see. (On the IBM, click the LMB on the button to call up information.) The button currently on is shown in a different color (white on the IBM).
        Map: Pressing this button calls up a small version of the world map. The city you are in is marked for reference. (On the IBM, the city is a white dot.) Also marked on the map are the location of any cities with which you have established trade routes (shown as light green dots) and the location of units that make this their home city (light grey dots). The map may be useful for planning additional trade routes, assessing the danger of enemies, locating units you wish to disband, or deciding a sailing direction for newly launched ships.
        View: This button opens the bird's-eye view of the city that is seen when a new improvement or Wonder of the World is built. As time passes, note that the architecture of the various dwellings improves.
        Info: This button calls up the most useful information. When you first open any city display, this button is automatically on.
        Just below the row of buttons are the icons for all units currently in the city. Fortified units have a border around them and units on sentry duty are shown as faded icons. Fortified units or those on sentry duty may only be activated from this window. (On the IBM, click the LMB on the unit.) When you return to the map display, these units can now be given orders.
        At the bottom of the window is a list of any trade routes the city has established. Each trade route is noted by the name of the city with which you are trading and the amount of trade generated. This trade is automatically included in the trade your city is generating, shown in the city resources window of the display.
        As your civilization moves into the Industrial Age, pollution may become a problem. In the middle of this window, pollution indicators (smokestack icons) appear when the city's industry gets sufficiently large.
        The presence of several smokestacks is a cue that you need to reduce pollution or be prepared to clean it up. The alternative is eventual environmental disaster. There can be up to one hundred smokestacks present, indicating a 100% probability of pollution each turn.
        Happy: This button opens the Population Happiness Chart, which shows what factors are affecting the happiness of the city's population. All people in a city beyond a certain number are unhappy before any modifying influences are taken into account. At the Emperor level of difficulty, only the first two people are content; at King level, the first three; and so on down to Chieftan level, where the first six people are content.
        When the city's population increases beyond these minimums, the new people are unhappy unless their condition is improved by a culture and standard of living that provides luxuries, religion, and entertainment; they are coerced into contentment by martial law; or the presence of Wonders of the World lifts their pride and spirits.
        The top row of the chart shows the happiness of the population before taking into account any of the factors that improve happiness.
        The second row shows the effects of the luxuries that are provided to the city, if any. Two units of luxuries make one content person happy or one unhappy person content. A contented person is made happy before another unhappy person is made content.
        The third row shows the effect of Temples, Cathedrals, and Colosseums. These improvements make unhappy people content.
        The fourth row shows the effects of martial law and military service. Under all governments except the Republic and Democracy, each military unit in a city coerces one unhappy person into contentment. Any units imposing marital law are shown in this row. Under the Republic or Democracy, martial law does not work. Instead, each military unit not in its home city makes one or more persons unhappy. This is shown by the "sad face" symbols in this row and under the units in the home city roster.
        The fifth row shows the effects of any Wonders of the World, either in this city or elsewhere, that are influencing the population's happiness. For example, J.S. Bach's Cathedral decreases the number of unhappy people by two.
        Specialists are content people, and are taken from the ranks of the content or happy population when created. The effect of the increased luxuries created by Entertainers is shown in row two.
        The bottom row or the chart shows the cumulative effect of all the factors on the happiness of the population. The status shown in this row is the same as that in the population roster at the top of the display.
        Examining this chart is useful for understanding what else could be done if the city is out of balance. You may see where creating Entertainers, disbanding out of towns units, bringing in more units, or building a new improvement can bring the city back into order.

        City improvements are the commercial, bureaucratic, educational, and public works infrastructure that make large and efficient cities possible. The potential size of a city is limited by inadequate provision of these facilities. The dense population of New York is made possible by the subway system. Los Angeles is located in a desert and brings much of its water from sources hundreds of miles away.
        In Civilization, improvements are also critical to the growth and importance of cities. Each of the improvements available provides some service or otherwise makes the city work more efficiently.
        When beginning a new civilization, you normally may only build one type of improvement, the Barracks. As your civilization acquires new technologies, more improvements become possible. Each city may only build one of each improvement. The improvements that your city possesses are listed in the improvements roster on the city display. Once built, improvements (but not Wonders) may be destroyed by sabotage, disaster, and capture, and may even be sold for cash.
        Sabotage: Diplomats may enter a city and attempt industrial sabotage. This may result in the destruction of an existing improvement. The only defense against this type of attack is destroying the Diplomat before it can enter the city.
        Disaster: Volcanos, Pirate Raids, Floods, Fires, and Earthquakes may destroy improvements in a city. There is no defense against Earthquakes, but Aqueducts prevent Fires, Temples prevent Volcanos, City Walls prevent Floods, and Barracks prevent Pirate Raids.
        Capture: Some, all, or none of a city's improvements may be destroyed when it is captured by another civilization. When a city is completely destroyed, all improvements are destroyed as well.
        Selling Improvements: You may sell an existing improvement to raise cash by pressing the sell button next to its name in the improvements roster of the city display. (For the IBM, click the LMB on the button.) An option menu appears showing how much cash you would receive for selling, which is $1 per resource invested. Choose whether to sell or not. If you sell, the improvement disappears from the city and the money is added to your treasury.
        Selling improvements may be useful when you are short of money and threatened with the random sale of an improvement. It may also be useful when you are under attack with no reasonable chance of defending or recovering a city. By selling off its improvements, you reduce its value to the enemy and salvage something. You may sell one improvement per turn.
        An alphabetical list of improvements follows, including the benefit of the improvement and the technology that makes it possible.
        Aqueduct: Cities without an Aqueduct may not grow beyond a size of 10 population points. In addition, Aqueducts prevent the disasters of Fire and Plague. Aqueducts require the advance of Construction, cost 120 resources to build, and cost $2 per turn to maintain.
        Banks: Banks increase the luxuries and taxes generated by a city by 50%. They require the advance of Banking and the city must already have a Marketplace improvement. The bonus from a Bank is added to that of an existing Marketplace and then applied. This bonus takes effect after all other considerations, including trade routes. Banks cost 120 resources to build and #3 per turn to maintain.
        Barracks: New units built in this city are already veterans, increasing their attack and defense factors by 50%. Barracks prevent the disaster of pirates. No technology is required to build Barracks. However, all existing Barracks become obsolete and disappear when you acquire the advances of Gunpowder and Combustion. Second generation Barracks cost $1 per turn to maintain and third generation Barracks cost $2 per turn to maintain.
        Cathedral: A Cathedral makes four unhappy people content and is very useful for keeping a large city out of civil disorder. It requires the advance of Religion, costs 160 resources to build, and costs $3 per turn to maintain. The effect of all Cathedrals in your cities is increased if you possess Michelangelo's Chapel, a medieval Wonder of the World.
        City Walls: City Walls triple the strength of a defending unit, except when attack by a Bomber or Artillery unit. This tripling occurs after considering the effect of terrain and veteran status. Cities defended by City Walls do not suffer population losses when a defending unit is destroyed. Walls also prevent the disaster of Flood. They require the advance of Masonry, cost 120 resources to build, and cost $2 per turn to maintain.
        Colosseum: The Colosseum is a large stadium for holding athletic contests and other events drawing crowds. Its presence makes 3 unhappy people content. It requires the advance of Construction, costs 100 resources to build and costs $4 per turn to maintain.
        Courthouse: This improvement reduces corruption in a city by 50%. It requires the advance of the Code of Laws, costs 80 resources to build, and costs$1 per turn to maintain.
        Factory: A Factory increases the amount of resources generated by a city by 50%. A Factory becomes obsolete and stops working if a Manufacturing Plant is built in the same city. A Factory requires the advance of Industrialization, costs 200 resources to build, and costs $4 per turn to maintain. The effect of a Factory may be increased by the presence of a Hydro Plant, a Nuclear Plant, or a Power Plant. It may also be increased by the Hoover Dam, a modern Wonder of the World.
        Granary: Cities possessing a Granary use up only 50% of their stored food to create new population. The storage box only half empties. In addition, the Granary prevents a Famine disaster from destroying population. The Granary requires the advance of Pottery, costs 60 resources to build, and costs $1 per turn to maintain.
        Hydro Plant: The production bonus for a Factory or Manufacturing Plant is doubled if the city has a Hydro Plant. In addition, a Hydro Plant reduces the probability of pollution. A Hydro Plant may only be built by a city adjacent to a River or Mountains. It requires the advance of Electronics, costs 240 resources to build, and costs $4 per turn to maintain.
        Power Plant Clarifications: All three types of power plant increase the base resource production of a city by 50%, before the effects of a Factory or Manufacturing Plant are considered.
        Library: A Library increases the knowledge production of a city by 50%. It requires the advance of Writing, costs 80 resources to build, and costs $1 to maintain. The effect of all Libraries in your cities is increased if you possess Isaac Newton's College, a medieval Wonder of the World.
        Manufacturing Plant: This improvement increases the resources generated by a city by 100%. It requires the advance of Robotics, costs 320 resources to build, and costs $6 to maintain. Its presence makes an already existing Factory obsolete and the Factory ceases to work. The effect of a Manufacturing Plant may be increased by the presence of the Hydro Plant, the Nuclear Plant, the Power Plant, or the Hoover Dam.
        Marketplace: A marketplace increases tax revenue and luxuries by 50%. The Marketplace becomes available with the advance of Currency, costs 80 resources to build, and costs $1 per turn to maintain.
        Mass Transit: In cities with Mass Transit, the population has no effect on pollution. Otherwise, when a civilization has acquired the Automobile advance, the population of its cities increases the probability of pollution. Mass Transit requires the advance of Mass Production, costs 160 resources to build, and costs $4 to maintain.
        Nuclear Plant: Like other types of power plants, the Nuclear Plant increases the production of a Factory or Manufacturing Plant by another 50%. A Nuclear Plant also reduces the day-to-day probability of pollution. However, a Nuclear Plant in a city suffering civil disorder risks a Nuclear Meltdown. The Nuclear Plant requires the advance of Nuclear Power, costs 160 resources to build, and costs $2 per turn to maintain.
        Palace: This is the administrative and governmental center of your civilization. The farther any city is from the city containing the Palace, the more corruption is likely. You may build a new Palace in another city, but this causes the retirement of the first Palace and relocation of the government. If your Palace is destroyed, a new one may be built in any existing city. The Palace requires the advance of Masonry and costs 200 resources to build. Your Palace costs nothing to maintain.
        Power Plant: This source of industrial power increases the resources generated by Factories and Manufacturing Plants by an additional 50%. However, it increases the probability fo pollution significantly. The Power Plant requires the advance of Refining, costs 160 resources to build, and costs $2 per turn to maintain.
        Recycling Center: The recycling center reduces the probability of pollution by two-thirds. It requires the advance of Recycling, costs 200 resources to build, and costs $2 to maintain.
        SDI Defense: The SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Defense protects the city from Nuclear units. Attacks by these weapons have no effect. This improvement becomes available with the Superconductor advance. The SDI defense costs 200 resources to build and costs $4 to maintain.
        Temple: The Temple improvement becomes available with the Ceremonial Burial advance. Its presence makes one person content. With the additional advance of Mysticism, another person is made content by a Temple, for a total of two. A Temple prevents the Volcano disaster. Temples cost 40 resources to build and $1 to maintain. The effect of a Temple may be doubled if you possess the Oracle, an ancient Wonder of the World.
        University: The presence of a University increases the knowledge generated by a city by 50%. A University may only be built in a city that already possesses a Library. The University bonus is added to the bonus from an existing Library. Together they double the knowledge generated. Universities become available with the advance of University. They cost 160 resources to build and $3 to maintain. The effect of all Universities in your cities is increased if you possess the Isaac Newton's College, a medieval Wonder of the World.

        As your civilization progresses through the years, certain advances make possible the building of Wonders of the World. There are 21 Wonders, 7 each for the three great epochs of civilization: Antiquity, the Middle Ages, (including the Renaissance), and the Industrial Age (present and future). These Wonders are the extraordinary monuments of a civilization, bringing everlasting glory and other benefits to their owners.
        A Wonder is a dramatic, awe-inspiring accomplishment. It is typically a great achievement of engineering, science, or the arts, representing a milepost in the history of humankind. Each Wonder is unique, existing only in the city where it is constructed.
        In addition to the glory attached to owning a Wonder, each one has a specific, unique benefit. The people of your civilization are able to perform amazing feats, inspired by their pride in the possession of Wonders. For example, if your civilization possesses the Lighthouse, your ship units are able to move one additional map square per turn.
        The benefits of some Wonders apply only to the civilization that possesses them. If a Wonder you build is lost when one of your cities is captured, the powers of the Wonder then apply to the conquering civilization. The same holds true if you capture a Wonder.
        However, the benefits of the ancient Wonders and most of the Wonders of the Middle Ages may not stand for all time. Objects and accomplishments that awed the ancients may not similarly inspire the people of the Industrial Age. The achievement of later advances may end the benefits of later Wonders, regardless of whether your civilization or another makes the cancelling advance.


        Each Wonder may be built once your civilization achieves a specific technology. For example, when your civilization acquires Map Making, you may begin construction of the Lighthouse.
        You may only build a Wonder if it does not already exist somewhere else in the world. If it exists in another city, it does not appear as an option in your production menus. If you are building a Wonder in one of your cities and the same Wonder is completed elsewhere before you finish, you cannot complete your construction. You must convert your production to something else.
        Wonder are not destroyed when an enemy occupies their city. However, if a city possessing a Wonder is destroyed, then that Wonder is lost forever and cannot be rebuilt.
        Wonders are built in the same manner as any other city improvement with one exception. You may move a Caravan into the city of construction and accept the option "help build Wonder." All the resources that went into the Caravan are added to the construction of the Wonder.
        Wonders may be built in any city and more than one may be built in the same city.


        Each Wonder has specific and general benefits. An example of a specific benefit is increased movement of your ships when you possess the Lighthouse.
        General benefits are the glory that accrues to your civilization for possessing the Wonder, even after new technology makes it obsolete. Each Wonder that your civilization possesses adds to your civilization score. The presence of Wonders are significant when the top 5 cities in the world are measured. The presence of Wonders also influences the historians, such as Gibbon, who periodically rate the world's civilizations. Finally, Wonders also influence the decision of the people to improve your palace.


        Colossus: The Colossus is a great bronze statue bestriding the gates or harbor mouth of the city. This amazing statue draws tourists from around the world, greatly increasing the trade of the area.
        Trade is +1 in every city map square that is already generating some trade. The effect on tourism stop working after development of Electricity and the trade is thereafter lost. The Colossus requires the advance of Bronze Working and takes 200 resources to build.
        Great Library: Begun as a hobby by a local ruler, the Great Library is an obsession for the city. Its agents scour the world for books and manuscripts, making the Great Library the largest repository in existence.
        The Great Library gives you any technology that two other civilizations have acquired. However, it stops working after development of the University. It requires the advance of Literacy and takes 300 resources to build.
        Great Wall: The Great Wall was built not so much to keep invaders out, but to retard their escape with any loot. The effect is to deter the aggressiveness of neighbors.
        When you possess the Great Wall, other civilizations always offer peace during negotiations. However, the effect of the Great Wall ceases after development of Gunpowder. It requires the Masonry advance and takes 300 resources to build.
        Hanging Gardens: The magnificent Hanging Gardens are a great marriage of engineering and beauty. Architecturally brilliant layered tiers of gardens are ingeniously supplied with water. Any visitor is overwhelmed by the grace of this man-made garden of paradise.
        Possessing this beautiful monument brings great pleasure to the people of your civilization and results in +1 happy citizen in each of your cities. This magical effect of the Hanging Gardens expires with the development of Invention because, thereafter, the gadgetry of the garden design becomes cheaply available to everyone.
        Knowledge of the Hanging Gardens is acquired with the advance of Pottery, and the Wonder takes 300 resources to build.
        Lighthouse: The construction of this immense Lighthouse not only creates the greatest navigational aid of antiquity, but triggers a birth of seafaring skills and traditions. The result is great achievements by your ships and captains.
        Possession of the Lighthouse increases sea movement rates by 1 square for all of your ships. However, the effect of the Lighthouse ceases working after development of Magnetism, a new navigational aid that puts competent sailing within the grasp of anyone. The Lighthouse requires the advance of MapMaking and it takes 200 resources to build.
        Oracle: Building the Oracle gives the beliefs of your civilization a unifying central dogma that increases its effect on the people. The auguries of the Oracle are transmitted through the local Temples, exerting significant control over their lives.
        The Oracle becomes available with the advance of Mysticism and doubles the effect of your Temples in making unhappy people content. It stops working after the development of Religion, which appeals more widely to the growing literate, intelligent citizenry. The Oracle takes 300 resources to build.
        Pyramids: The Pyramids are the greatest and oldest of the ancient Wonders. Their construction requires great government control of the entire nation to make possible the effort of their construction.
        A civilization that possesses the Pyramids may change government type without going through a period of Anarchy. In addition, that civilization may select any type of government, not just those for which it has made the correct advance. For example, the possessing nation may become a Democracy long before it acquires the technology of Democracy.
        The Pyramids require the advancement of Masonry and take 300 resources to build. However, the effects of the Pyramids expire after the advance of Communism is achieved.

The Middle Ages

        Copernicus's Observatory: Working alone on cold nights in the tower of his cathedral, this Polish priest re-established that the Sun was the center of the Solar System, not Earth. This fact had been recognized by ancient astronomers but lost in the Dark Ages, buried under superstition and religious dogma. Copernicus's findings were controversial but proven true, and were an important step in the rebirth of Western science.
        Building Copernicus's Observatory doubles knowledge production in the city, after all adjustments for Libraries, Universities, and Scientists. However, this benefit stops working after development of the Automobile. The advance of Astronomy makes the Observatory possible. It costs 300 resources to build.
        Darwin's Voyage: Partially from the research accomplished on his scientific voyage aboard the Beagle to the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolution that was published in his masterwork, The Origin of Species. Darwin's arguments, and those of his contemporary, Alfred Russel Wallace, were so convincing that they were only disputed on philosophical grounds, mainly by religious fundamentalists. The theory of organic evolution was the foundation of all following research in biology.
        The civilization that builds Darwin's Voyage immediately acquires two civilization advances. The advance of Railroads makes Darwin's Voyage possible. The Voyage costs 300 resources.
        Isaac Newton's College: Considered by many to be the greatest scientist of all time, Newton developed theories of universal gravitation that explained both the motion of heavenly bodies and the falling of bodies to Earth. He also wrote important works on calculus, optics, the spectrum of light, fluid mechanics, the motion of comets, and the motion of tides, and built the first reflecting telescope. For 32 years he was a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University.
        Possessing Newton's College increases the knowledge benefit of all your Libraries and Universities. It may be built once you have acquired the Theory of Gravity, but stops working after the development of Nuclear Fission. The College requires 400 resources to build.
        J.S. Bach's Cathedral: Johann Sebastian Bach was one of the great composers of the Western world. He was noted as a virtuoso performer during his life, but has become much more revered since his passing for the genius of his music. The majority of his compositions were written while serving the church, and most pieces were written for the organ and dedicated to the glory of his God.
        Possessing Bach's Cathedral decreases unhappy citizens on the same continent by 2 per city. The Cathedral may be built after the advance of Religion and costs 400 resources. The power of Bach's music does not expire.
        Magellan's Expedition: Ferdinand Magellan, a Portugese navigator, led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe. Sponsored by Charles I of Spain, he was searching for a westward route to the spice islands of the Moluccas. Along the way, he discovered the straits at Cape Horn that bear his name. Unfortunately, he died in the Philippines fighting natives. Only one of his five original ships and few of his men reached home, but the expedition proved that the Earth was round.
        Possessing Magellan's Expedition increases sea movement rates by 1 square for all of your ships. The expedition becomes possible after the advance of Navigation and never expires. It costs 400 resources to build.
        Michaelangelo's Chapel: Michaelangelo Buonarroti was perhaps the greatest of the Renaissance sculptors and painters. Working for the church in Rome and the Medici family in Florence, he is best known for his sculpture of David and the painting of the Sistine Chapel. He is renowned for the beauty of his work and its influence on succeeding generations.
        You may build the Chapel after achieving the advance of Religion. Possessing it increases the benefits of Cathedrals throughout your civilization until the advance of Communism diminishes the strength of Religion. The Chapel takes 300 resources to build.
        Shakespeare's Theatre: William Shakespeare, an English Dramatist and poet, is considered the greatest of all playwrights. Little is known of his life and he seems not to have become rich or famous in his own day. But not long after his death his fame began to grow and his influence on the English language has increased with the renown of his plays, which are still performed regularly around the globe.
        The Theatre may be built after achieving the advance of Medicine. Thereafter, all unhappy people in the city are content, until the advance of Electronics makes the Theatre obsolete. It costs 400 resources to build.

Industrial Age

        Apollo Program: The culmination of the space race of the 1960s, the Apollo Program put several manned expeditions onto the Moon. Quickly overcoming many difficulties and dangers, the Apollo Program was one of the greatest technological achievements of the age. Its success promises that humankind may not be restricted just to Earth, but may eventually expand into space.
        The Apollo Program may be built after achieving the advance of Space Flight. It allows construction of space ships by any civilization having th technology to build parts. An additional benefit of the Apollo Program is the ability to see the location of all cities in the world. The Apollo Program costs 600 resources to build.
        Cure for Cancer: Of the diseases that continue to plague humankind, cancer remains one of the most feared and deadly. Despite huge efforts to find a cure for this malady, it continues to reap its toll each year. The developing science of genetic engineering offers new hope for a cure.
        After the development of the advance of Genetic Engineering, you may work on the Cure for Cancer. Possessing the Cure creates +1 happy citizen in all cities of your civilization. The Cure for Cancer costs 600 resources.
        Hoover Dam: Huge hydroelectric power sources were first developed in the United States during the 1930s and have since been built throughout the world. Converting the kinetic energy of falling water into electric power has proven to be relatively cheap and environmentally sound method of generating electricity.
        The Hoover Dam may be built after the advance of Electronics is acquired. The Dam provides electric power to all cities on the same continent, increasing the resources generated by the city by 50%. In addition, the Dam reduces the probability of pollution from these cities. The Hoover Dam costs 600 resources to build.
        Manhattan Project: The Manhattan Project was the codename for the theoretical and practical development of atomic weapons. Once completed, the world's future immediately was in doubt because the weapons it had made possible threatened extinction of all life on Earth. But these weapons also offered an umbrella of peace due to their destructiveness. Massive global war became obsolete because the participants were doomed, win or lose.
        Now, surviving the Nuclear Age and environmental poisoning are the two greatest challenges of industrial civilization.
        Once any civilization completes the Manhattan Project, all civilizations in the world may begin building Nuclear weapons, if they have the proper technology. The Manhattan project may be built once the advance of Nuclear Fission has been achieved. The Project costs 600 resources to build.
        SETI Program: The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is a research effort set up to find an answer for one of humankind's most nagging questions: Are we the only intelligent life in the universe? Being the first civilization to contact other intelligent life brings great glory and perhaps technological advantages.
        The SETI Program may be built when your civilization acquires the advance of Computers. Thereafter, the knowledge generated by your cities is increased by 50%, unless the Program is destroyed or captured by a rival. The SETI Program costs 600 resources to complete.
        Women's Suffrage: A phenomena of the cultural, philosophical, and social changes that followed the Industrial Revolution has been a steadily increasing respect for the rights and abilities of women. Women demanded and won the franchise of the vote, first in the Western Democracies, after demonstrating their ability to perform well almost any job while the men were off to war. This symbolic freeing from historical hierarchies has led to increasing practical freedom, at least in the West.
        Women's Suffrage becomes available after the advance of Industrialization. Under a Republic or Democracy, units away from their home city create one less unhappy citizen than normal for a civilization that possesses Women's Suffrage. It costs 600 resources to achieve.
        United Nations: The United Nations is an international organization that meets to solve international problems through diplomacy. Its goal is world peace and security. It offers a forum for debate and also works to aid the economic and technical development of poorer nations.
        Building the United Nations is a great achievement by a civilization. It is available after the advance of Communism. During negotiations with other civilizations, they always offer to make peace with you. This allows at least a temporary resolution to all wars you are engaged in. The United Nations costs 600 resources to build.

        Each game turn there is a chance that a disaster of some sort may strike one of your cities. A disaster may result in loss of population, destruction of a city improvement, or disruption of production. Some disasters may be prevented if your civilization has acquired certain advances or if the city has built a certain improvement. In these cases, the disaster does not occur or has not effect.
        The possible disasters are described below. For each there is an explanation of why it occurs (if a reason exists), the effect on your city when it strikes, and what measures can prevent it, if any.
        Earthquake: Earthquakes may strike any city that is built adjacent to Hills terrain. There is nothing that you can build or learn to prevent this disaster. An earthquake destroys one city improvement.
        Famine: Famine strikes randomly. It can be prevented by building an Granary improvement. If it strikes a city with no Granary, all food in the food storage box is lost and the city's population is reduced.
        Fire: Fire can hit any city at any time. It can be prevented by building an Aqueduct improvement. Fire destroys one city improvement.
        Flood: Flood can strike any city built next to or on a River square. It can be prevented by building a City Walls improvement. Flood reduces city population.
        Piracy: Pirate Raids may strike any city built adjacent to an Ocean square. Pirates can be prevented by building a Barracks improvement. Pirates remove all food from the storage box and destroy whatever is being built in the production box. All resources spent so far in production are lost.
        Plague: Plague may strike any city at any time. It can be prevented by acquiring the advance of Medicine or by building an Aqueduct improvement. Plague reduces the city's population.
        Volcano: A volcano may erupt and damage any city built adjacent to or on Mountain terrain. The effects of a volcano may be neglected by building a Temple improvement in the city. Volcanic eruptions reduce the city's population unless negated.

        Some changes have been made to this manual which are different from the original. I have not removed any major content, but the title pages are not represented here, and neither are the copyright and registration notices at the back. Some corrections were made to account for grammatical errors and typos in the original manual. I also removed the part where it tells you how to load a game from within a game. This function seems to have been taken out of the game (Notice the blank line in the Game menu), so I didn't want to have anyone confused. Plus, all page references were removed, including the ones which simply said "turn to page XX" ??? If you notice any more errors in this document, please E-mail me and I'll fix them. Some may note that large sections of this manual seem to be missing from this manual, namely the Players' Notes and Designers' Notes sections. My hard copy of the manual is a later printing with these sections omitted, so sorry. If someone has the complete manual and will give me (in TeXT form) those missing chapters, I will add them to this and give credit.